Abstract

Diffuse transmissions through atmospheres of haze and clouds were measured over slant ranges from 0.5 to 9.0 kilometers. The modification of the transmissions when the source was near a diffusely reflecting surface was also measured. The transmissions are presented as curves representing the least squares fit to the experimental data for general weather conditions.

© 1958 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, Physics 1, 273 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 377 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. V. King, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) A212, 375 (1913).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Fritz, J. Meteorol. 11, 291 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. London, J. Meteorol. 9, 145 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. I. Richards, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 927 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950).
  8. Photoswitch Division, Electronics Corporation of America Visibility Photometer, “Engineering report on design and operating instructions,” (1954), 64 pp.
  9. K. A. Brownlee, Industrial Experimentation (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1953), pp. 51–54.
  10. W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 576 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. S. Steward and J. A. Curcio, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 801 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Maron and L. B. Streets, AFSWP No. 513 (1955).

1956 (1)

1955 (1)

H. Maron and L. B. Streets, AFSWP No. 513 (1955).

1954 (2)

Photoswitch Division, Electronics Corporation of America Visibility Photometer, “Engineering report on design and operating instructions,” (1954), 64 pp.

S. Fritz, J. Meteorol. 11, 291 (1954).
[Crossref]

1952 (2)

1949 (1)

1937 (1)

1931 (1)

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, Physics 1, 273 (1931).
[Crossref]

1913 (1)

L. V. King, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) A212, 375 (1913).
[Crossref]

Brownlee, K. A.

K. A. Brownlee, Industrial Experimentation (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1953), pp. 51–54.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950).

Curcio, J. A.

Fritz, S.

S. Fritz, J. Meteorol. 11, 291 (1954).
[Crossref]

Hulburt, E. O.

King, L. V.

L. V. King, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) A212, 375 (1913).
[Crossref]

Langmuir, I.

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, Physics 1, 273 (1931).
[Crossref]

London, J.

J. London, J. Meteorol. 9, 145 (1952).
[Crossref]

Maron, H.

H. Maron and L. B. Streets, AFSWP No. 513 (1955).

Middleton, W. E. K.

Richards, P. I.

Steward, H. S.

Streets, L. B.

H. Maron and L. B. Streets, AFSWP No. 513 (1955).

Westendorp, W. F.

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, Physics 1, 273 (1931).
[Crossref]

AFSWP No. 513 (1)

H. Maron and L. B. Streets, AFSWP No. 513 (1955).

Engineering report on design and operating instructions (1)

Photoswitch Division, Electronics Corporation of America Visibility Photometer, “Engineering report on design and operating instructions,” (1954), 64 pp.

J. Meteorol. (2)

S. Fritz, J. Meteorol. 11, 291 (1954).
[Crossref]

J. London, J. Meteorol. 9, 145 (1952).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Physics (1)

I. Langmuir and W. F. Westendorp, Physics 1, 273 (1931).
[Crossref]

Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

L. V. King, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) A212, 375 (1913).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. A. Brownlee, Industrial Experimentation (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1953), pp. 51–54.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffuse transmission through an atmosphere of light haze at 1500 meters altitude. Observations were made in four atmospheres of the total, infrared, and visible spectral regions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffuse transmission through moderate haze of the total spectral region in three atmospheres.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffuse transmission through moderate haze of the total spectral region for three fields of view. Two weather samples were used (refers to Table II).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffuse transmission through light fog of the total and visible spectral region in one atmosphere.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffuse transmission through dense fog of the total and visible spectral region in one atmosphere.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffuse transmission through clouds of the total spectral regions in three atmospheres. The slant range is the path in clouds only.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffuse transmission through moderate haze above a flat snow covered surface of the total, infrared, and visible spectral regions. Observations were made in eight atmospheres.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffuse transmission through moderate haze below a cloud deck of the total and visible spectral regions. Observations were made in one atmosphere.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diffuse transmission through light fog and drizzle below a cloud deck of the total and visible spectral regions. Observations were made in one atmosphere.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Summary of the diffuse transmissions of the total spectral region.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Experimental diffuse transmission.

Tables Icon

Table II Diffuse transmission through haze for three fields of view.

Equations (1)

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E R 2 = I 0 × 10 - k R ,             0.5 km < R < 9 km .