Abstract

By the use of television techniques it is possible to record the position of a man’s gaze upon a picture of the scene at which he is looking. The corneal reflection of a light is picked up by a television camera, which magnifies the movement of the spot about 100 times. The scene at which the man is gazing is provided by a second television camera, and the corneal reflection is superimposed upon another television monitor also showing the same scene. By suitable calibration, this spot can be made to lie upon that part of the scene being regarded and the accuracy with which this can be done is within one or two degrees.Thus it is possible to see where a man is looking at any moment, and simultaneously to record the composite eye-scene picture by means of a motion picture camera. In addition to its practical uses, this method is particularly useful for answering such general questions as whether a subject always sees what he is directly looking at, what kind of cues catch his attention when he is searching, and what sort of changes in a display catch his attention. It is primarily intended for use with a moving display, as it records the point of view directly on to each state of the display. Successive glances therefore indicate the order in which particular parts of complex displays are selected, as well as the exact moment at which the gaze changes to a new position.

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  1. S. B. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 782 (1949).
  2. R. Dodge, Psychol. Monogr. No. 35 (1907).
  3. R. S. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1954).
  4. L. Carmichael and W. F. Dearborn, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1947).
  5. M. D. Vernon, The Experimental Study of Reading (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1931).
  6. M. Cesa-Bianchi, Giorn. psichiat e neuropatol. 4, 1 (1955).
  7. L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).
  8. Riggs, Armington, and Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315 (1954).
  9. H. C. Weston, Sight, Light and Efficiency (H. K. Lewis, London, 1949).
  10. W. R. Miles and E. Shen, J. Exptl. Psychol. 8, 344 (1925).
  11. H. H. Jasper, and R. Y. Walker, Science 74, 291 (1931).
  12. G. T. Buswell, How People Look at Pictures (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1935).
  13. H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 666 (1937).
  14. H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 564 (1940).
  15. H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 260 (1940).
  16. H. F. Brandt, The Psychology of Seeing (Philosophical Library, Inc., New York, 1945).
  17. P. R. Wendt, Psychol. Monogr. 66, No. 339 (1952).
  18. R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. 119, 1 (1953).
  19. F. W. Campbell (personal communication, 1957).
  20. Ditchburn, Fender, and Mayne (personal communication, 1957).
  21. N. H. Mackworth and J. F. Mackworth, Brit. J. Psychol. 49, 89 (1958).
  22. J. F. Mackworth and N. H. Mackworth, film entitled "Th Eye-Marker," Symposium on Automation at XVth International Congress of Psychology (1957).
  23. L. Carmichael, "Comprehension time, cybernetics and regressive eye movements in reading," XVth International Congres of Psychology (1957).

1958 (1)

N. H. Mackworth and J. F. Mackworth, Brit. J. Psychol. 49, 89 (1958).

1957 (4)

J. F. Mackworth and N. H. Mackworth, film entitled "Th Eye-Marker," Symposium on Automation at XVth International Congress of Psychology (1957).

L. Carmichael, "Comprehension time, cybernetics and regressive eye movements in reading," XVth International Congres of Psychology (1957).

F. W. Campbell (personal communication, 1957).

Ditchburn, Fender, and Mayne (personal communication, 1957).

1955 (1)

M. Cesa-Bianchi, Giorn. psichiat e neuropatol. 4, 1 (1955).

1954 (1)

Riggs, Armington, and Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315 (1954).

1953 (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. 119, 1 (1953).

1952 (1)

P. R. Wendt, Psychol. Monogr. 66, No. 339 (1952).

1950 (1)

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).

1949 (1)

S. B. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 782 (1949).

1940 (2)

H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 564 (1940).

H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 260 (1940).

1937 (1)

H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 666 (1937).

1931 (1)

H. H. Jasper, and R. Y. Walker, Science 74, 291 (1931).

1925 (1)

W. R. Miles and E. Shen, J. Exptl. Psychol. 8, 344 (1925).

1907 (1)

R. Dodge, Psychol. Monogr. No. 35 (1907).

Brandt, H. F.

H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 564 (1940).

H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 260 (1940).

H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 666 (1937).

H. F. Brandt, The Psychology of Seeing (Philosophical Library, Inc., New York, 1945).

Buswell, G. T.

G. T. Buswell, How People Look at Pictures (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1935).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell (personal communication, 1957).

Carmichael, L.

L. Carmichael, "Comprehension time, cybernetics and regressive eye movements in reading," XVth International Congres of Psychology (1957).

L. Carmichael and W. F. Dearborn, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1947).

Cesa-Bianchi, M.

M. Cesa-Bianchi, Giorn. psichiat e neuropatol. 4, 1 (1955).

Dearborn, W. F.

L. Carmichael and W. F. Dearborn, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1947).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. 119, 1 (1953).

Dodge, R.

R. Dodge, Psychol. Monogr. No. 35 (1907).

Ginsborg, B. L.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. 119, 1 (1953).

Jasper, H. H.

H. H. Jasper, and R. Y. Walker, Science 74, 291 (1931).

Mackworth, J. F.

N. H. Mackworth and J. F. Mackworth, Brit. J. Psychol. 49, 89 (1958).

J. F. Mackworth and N. H. Mackworth, film entitled "Th Eye-Marker," Symposium on Automation at XVth International Congress of Psychology (1957).

Mackworth, N. H.

N. H. Mackworth and J. F. Mackworth, Brit. J. Psychol. 49, 89 (1958).

J. F. Mackworth and N. H. Mackworth, film entitled "Th Eye-Marker," Symposium on Automation at XVth International Congress of Psychology (1957).

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles and E. Shen, J. Exptl. Psychol. 8, 344 (1925).

Ratliff, F.

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).

Schlosberg, H.

R. S. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1954).

Shen, E.

W. R. Miles and E. Shen, J. Exptl. Psychol. 8, 344 (1925).

Vernon, M. D.

M. D. Vernon, The Experimental Study of Reading (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1931).

Walker, R. Y.

H. H. Jasper, and R. Y. Walker, Science 74, 291 (1931).

Wendt, P. R.

P. R. Wendt, Psychol. Monogr. 66, No. 339 (1952).

Weston, H. C.

H. C. Weston, Sight, Light and Efficiency (H. K. Lewis, London, 1949).

Williams, S. B.

S. B. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 782 (1949).

Woodworth, R. S.

R. S. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1954).

Other (23)

S. B. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 782 (1949).

R. Dodge, Psychol. Monogr. No. 35 (1907).

R. S. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1954).

L. Carmichael and W. F. Dearborn, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1947).

M. D. Vernon, The Experimental Study of Reading (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1931).

M. Cesa-Bianchi, Giorn. psichiat e neuropatol. 4, 1 (1955).

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).

Riggs, Armington, and Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315 (1954).

H. C. Weston, Sight, Light and Efficiency (H. K. Lewis, London, 1949).

W. R. Miles and E. Shen, J. Exptl. Psychol. 8, 344 (1925).

H. H. Jasper, and R. Y. Walker, Science 74, 291 (1931).

G. T. Buswell, How People Look at Pictures (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1935).

H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 666 (1937).

H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 564 (1940).

H. F. Brandt, Am. J. Psychol. 53, 260 (1940).

H. F. Brandt, The Psychology of Seeing (Philosophical Library, Inc., New York, 1945).

P. R. Wendt, Psychol. Monogr. 66, No. 339 (1952).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. 119, 1 (1953).

F. W. Campbell (personal communication, 1957).

Ditchburn, Fender, and Mayne (personal communication, 1957).

N. H. Mackworth and J. F. Mackworth, Brit. J. Psychol. 49, 89 (1958).

J. F. Mackworth and N. H. Mackworth, film entitled "Th Eye-Marker," Symposium on Automation at XVth International Congress of Psychology (1957).

L. Carmichael, "Comprehension time, cybernetics and regressive eye movements in reading," XVth International Congres of Psychology (1957).

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