Abstract

A technique of recording localized electroretinograms (ERGs) with macroelectrodes is described. The localized ERG showed a typical a wave and b wave which confirmed the idea that the ERG can be a response to a focal as well as a nonfocal stimulus. An electroretinographic map of the retina is shown. At the optic nerve head the ERG is absent or is markedly reduced in amplitude. The change in the amplitude of the b wave from the central area to the periphery is not smooth; on the contrary, abrupt changes in the amplitudes were found. An area in the inferior half of the retina was found which gave large amplitude ERGs. This area was seen in all of the retinas plotted although its exact shape and size varied.

© 1958 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Fry and S. H. Bartley, Am. J. Physiol. 111, 335 (1935).
  2. R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Asher, J. Physiol. 112,40P(1951).
  4. R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. E. Marg and G. Heath, Science 122, 1234 (1955).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 360 (1956).
  7. T. Tomita and Y. Torihama, J. Physiol. (Japan) 6, 118 (1956).
  8. W. A. H. Rushton, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 68 (1953).
  9. W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 164, 743 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 58 (1953).
  11. L. Lipetz, Electrophysiological studies of some properties of the vertebrate retina. (Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1953).
  12. S. Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Die Retina der Wirbelthiere (Wiesbaden, J. F. Bergman, 1894).
  13. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, New York, 1947).
  14. W. Müller-Limmroth and M. Lemaitre, Z. Biol. 105, 348 (1953).
  15. J. H. Chievitz, Arch. Anat. u. Physiol.; Anat. Abt. (1889).

1956 (2)

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 360 (1956).

T. Tomita and Y. Torihama, J. Physiol. (Japan) 6, 118 (1956).

1955 (1)

E. Marg and G. Heath, Science 122, 1234 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1953 (4)

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 58 (1953).

W. Müller-Limmroth and M. Lemaitre, Z. Biol. 105, 348 (1953).

W. A. H. Rushton, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 68 (1953).

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1951 (2)

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).
[Crossref]

H. Asher, J. Physiol. 112,40P(1951).

1949 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 164, 743 (1949).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

G. Fry and S. H. Bartley, Am. J. Physiol. 111, 335 (1935).

1889 (1)

J. H. Chievitz, Arch. Anat. u. Physiol.; Anat. Abt. (1889).

Asher, H.

H. Asher, J. Physiol. 112,40P(1951).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 58 (1953).

Bartley, S. H.

G. Fry and S. H. Bartley, Am. J. Physiol. 111, 335 (1935).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).
[Crossref]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 360 (1956).

Chievitz, J. H.

J. H. Chievitz, Arch. Anat. u. Physiol.; Anat. Abt. (1889).

Fry, G.

G. Fry and S. H. Bartley, Am. J. Physiol. 111, 335 (1935).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, New York, 1947).

Heath, G.

E. Marg and G. Heath, Science 122, 1234 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemaitre, M.

W. Müller-Limmroth and M. Lemaitre, Z. Biol. 105, 348 (1953).

Lipetz, L.

L. Lipetz, Electrophysiological studies of some properties of the vertebrate retina. (Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1953).

Marg, E.

E. Marg and G. Heath, Science 122, 1234 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller-Limmroth, W.

W. Müller-Limmroth and M. Lemaitre, Z. Biol. 105, 348 (1953).

Riggs, L. A.

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).
[Crossref]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 68 (1953).

W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 164, 743 (1949).
[Crossref]

Santiago Ramon y Cajal, S.

S. Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Die Retina der Wirbelthiere (Wiesbaden, J. F. Bergman, 1894).

Tomita, T.

T. Tomita and Y. Torihama, J. Physiol. (Japan) 6, 118 (1956).

Torihama, Y.

T. Tomita and Y. Torihama, J. Physiol. (Japan) 6, 118 (1956).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

G. Fry and S. H. Bartley, Am. J. Physiol. 111, 335 (1935).

Arch. Anat. u. Physiol.; Anat. Abt. (1)

J. H. Chievitz, Arch. Anat. u. Physiol.; Anat. Abt. (1889).

Brit. Med. Bull. (1)

W. A. H. Rushton, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 68 (1953).

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

H. Asher, J. Physiol. 112,40P(1951).

J. Physiol. (Japan) (1)

T. Tomita and Y. Torihama, J. Physiol. (Japan) 6, 118 (1956).

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 360 (1956).

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 58 (1953).

Nature (1)

W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 164, 743 (1949).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. Marg and G. Heath, Science 122, 1234 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Biol. (1)

W. Müller-Limmroth and M. Lemaitre, Z. Biol. 105, 348 (1953).

Other (3)

L. Lipetz, Electrophysiological studies of some properties of the vertebrate retina. (Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1953).

S. Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Die Retina der Wirbelthiere (Wiesbaden, J. F. Bergman, 1894).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, New York, 1947).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical system of stimulator and stereomanipulators. S, source; Mo, motor; Sh, shutter; P, photocell; W, wedge; M, mirror; E, recording electrode; R, retina; B, box; C, controls for stereomanipulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Viability of the isolated retina of the frog. Locus 1 was stimulated every 5 minutes, locus 2 every 15 minutes and locus 3 every 30 minutes. Duration, 50 msec; illuminance, 8 ft-c.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electroretinographic map of the frog retina. Optic nerve head located between F-9 and F-10. Duration, 50 msec; illuminance, 8 ft-c.