Abstract

Luminosity functions have been measured for four normal trichromats for three field sizes (1°, 12′, 1.5′) at various levels of retinal illuminance. As the illuminance decreases the reverse Purkinje effect is observed, i.e., there is a decrease in spectral sensitivity of the eye to blue relative to red. The dependence of the spectral sensitivity on field size is not pronounced for the experimental conditions used here. Considerable differences are found between the luminosity functions of the observers. These differences are several times larger than those obtained on repeated curves by any observer. It is shown that the use of an average luminosity function may give very misleading results in some cases.

A comparison is made with the data obtained by previous workers.

© 1958 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. E. Bedford and G. W. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 564 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. C. Thompson, J. Physiol. (London) 106, 368 (1947).
  3. Le Grand3b discusses briefly the reverse Purkinje effect and surveys some of the earlier literature.
  4. Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 121.
  5. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (Henry Kingston, London, 1946), p. 91, Fig. 55.
  6. S. G. Iurov, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 47, 271 (1949).
  7. L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. (London) 112, 114 (1951).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. G. Sperling and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 707 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953).
  10. H. G. Sperling, Symposium on Visual Problems of Color, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, September, 1957.
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 38, 80 (1952).
  12. R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. G. H. Ishak, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 529 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 2, 168 (1955).
  15. International Committee on Illumination, Proc. 8th Session, Cambridge, 1931 (The Cambridge University Press, London, 1932), p. 19.
  16. E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. (London) 110, 422 (1949).
  17. H. R. Blackwell, report issued by the University of Michigan.

1957 (2)

1955 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 2, 168 (1955).

1953 (1)

1952 (2)

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 38, 80 (1952).

I. G. H. Ishak, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 529 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1951 (2)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. (London) 112, 114 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1949 (2)

S. G. Iurov, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 47, 271 (1949).

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. (London) 110, 422 (1949).

1947 (1)

L. C. Thompson, J. Physiol. (London) 106, 368 (1947).

Bedford, R. E.

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell, report issued by the University of Michigan.

Graham, C. H.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 38, 80 (1952).

Hsia, Y.

H. G. Sperling and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 707 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 38, 80 (1952).

Hurvich, S. M.

Ishak, I. G. H.

Iurov, S. G.

S. G. Iurov, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 47, 271 (1949).

Jameson, D.

Le Grand, Y.

Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 121.

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 707 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Sperling, Symposium on Visual Problems of Color, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, September, 1957.
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 2, 168 (1955).

Thompson, L. C.

L. C. Thompson, J. Physiol. (London) 106, 368 (1947).

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. (London) 112, 114 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. (London) 110, 422 (1949).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (Henry Kingston, London, 1946), p. 91, Fig. 55.

Wyszecki, G. W.

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. (1)

S. G. Iurov, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 47, 271 (1949).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. (London) (4)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. (London) 110, 422 (1949).

L. C. Thompson, J. Physiol. (London) 106, 368 (1947).

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. (London) 112, 114 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optica Acta (Paris) (1)

W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 2, 168 (1955).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. (1)

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 38, 80 (1952).

Other (6)

International Committee on Illumination, Proc. 8th Session, Cambridge, 1931 (The Cambridge University Press, London, 1932), p. 19.

H. R. Blackwell, report issued by the University of Michigan.

H. G. Sperling, Symposium on Visual Problems of Color, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, September, 1957.
[CrossRef]

Le Grand3b discusses briefly the reverse Purkinje effect and surveys some of the earlier literature.

Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 121.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (Henry Kingston, London, 1946), p. 91, Fig. 55.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dimensions of field sizes used in the experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of luminosity function Vλ on level of retinal illuminance for a 12′ field and four observers. Curves for retinal illuminances of 500, 50, 7 trolands are shown by solid lines (solid circles), dashed lines (partly open circles), dotted lines (open circles), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of luminosity function Vλ on level of retinal illumination for a 1.5′ field and four observers. Curves for retinal illuminations of 11 000, 1500, 150 trolands are shown by solid lines (solid circles), dashed lines (partly open circles), dotted lines (open circles), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of luminosity function Vλ on field size for four observers. Curves for the 1° field are shown by solid lines (solid circles), those for the 12′ field are shown by dashed lines (partly open circles), and those for the 1.5′ field by dotted lines. (open circles). Vλ is plotted on a logarithmic scale with arbitrary units. The retinal illumination for the 1° and 12′ fields was 50 trolands, and for the 1.5′ field 150 trolands.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of various measurements of luminosity functions for field sizes of about 1°. The solid curve is the average of the four observers of this paper. The hatched area indicates the total spread for these observers. The dotted area indicates the total spread of curves given by other authors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of various measurements of luminosity functions for field sizes of about 12′. The solid curve is the average of the four observers of this paper for the medium level. The hatched area indicates the total spread for these observers. The dotted area indicates the total spread of curves given by other authors.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of various measurements of luminosity functions for field sizes of about 1.5′. The solid curve is the average of the four observers of this paper for the low level. The hatched area indicates the total spread for these observers. The dashed curve is that given in reference 7. The dotted curve is that given in reference 16.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Levels of retinal illuminance for the different sets of observations.

Tables Icon

Table II Average luminosity curves of four observers for three field sizes. Levels of retinal illuminance for the 1°, 12′, 1.5′ fields are 50, 50, 150 trolands, respectively.

Tables Icon

Table III Values of the luminous transmittance of the filters calculated using CIE standard source A and various luminosity functions. The CIE x-, y-chromaticity coordinates of the filters are indicated.