Abstract

Contradictory additivity data of previous investigators, defined as the summated response of the retina to light entering different parts of the pupil, have led to an intensive study of variables inherent in these measurements. The experimental results have demonstrated that the Maxwellian and the ordinary type of viewing may be used interchangeably in Stiles-Crawford and additivity effect experiments. The experiments conducted in this research have revealed that additivity data are affected by at least the following two factors: the Stiles-Crawford effect and the blur of the retinal image. When blur is eliminated in addivity studies, the Stiles-Crawford effect does not reduce perceived brightness as much as might be predicted. The blur effect, caused by ocular aberrations, spherical and chromatic aberrations in particular, is a variable dependent upon the observer. This variability is thought to account for the several discrepancies in the data found in the literature. Experiments concerning the effect of blur on perceived brightness have been completed. It was shown that blur reduces perceived brightness of a field, and the degree of the reduction is dependent upon the test method.

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References

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  1. W. W. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).
  2. Koomen, Skolnik, and Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 80 (1951).
  3. Boynton, Enoch, and Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 875 (1954).
  4. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).
  5. Y. LeGrand, Rev. opt. 2, 102โ€“107 (1948).
  6. A. Arnulf, Comm. des Lab. de L'Inst. d'Opt. 1, 23 (1944).
  7. S. H. Bartley, Perceptual and Motor Skills 5, 199 (1955).
  8. L. T. Troland, Psych. Review 22, 167 (1951).
  9. L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1 (1917).
  10. J. M. Enoch, Summated Response of the Retina to Light Entering Different Parts of the Pupil, Ph.D. Dissertation (Ohio State University, 1956).
  11. G. Bocchino, Optica 1, 136 (1936).
  12. G. Toraldo di Francia, Atti Fond. G. Ronchi 2, 100 (1947).
  13. Ercoles, Ronchi, Toraldo di Francia, Optica Acta 3, 84 (1956). Contact authors for corrected data.
  14. L. Ronchi, Optica Acta 2, 47 (1955).
  15. H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (Blakiston Company Philadelphia, 1950), p. 88.
  16. A. Ivanoff, Rev. Opt. (1953).

Arnulf, A.

A. Arnulf, Comm. des Lab. de L'Inst. d'Opt. 1, 23 (1944).

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, Perceptual and Motor Skills 5, 199 (1955).

Bocchino, G.

G. Bocchino, Optica 1, 136 (1936).

Crawford, B. H.

W. W. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, Summated Response of the Retina to Light Entering Different Parts of the Pupil, Ph.D. Dissertation (Ohio State University, 1956).

Francia, G. Toraldo di

G. Toraldo di Francia, Atti Fond. G. Ronchi 2, 100 (1947).

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (Blakiston Company Philadelphia, 1950), p. 88.

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff, Rev. Opt. (1953).

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Rev. opt. 2, 102โ€“107 (1948).

Moon, P.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).

Ronchi, L.

L. Ronchi, Optica Acta 2, 47 (1955).

Spencer, D. E.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).

Stiles, W. W.

W. W. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, Psych. Review 22, 167 (1951).

L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1 (1917).

Other

W. W. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Koomen, Skolnik, and Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 80 (1951).

Boynton, Enoch, and Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 875 (1954).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).

Y. LeGrand, Rev. opt. 2, 102โ€“107 (1948).

A. Arnulf, Comm. des Lab. de L'Inst. d'Opt. 1, 23 (1944).

S. H. Bartley, Perceptual and Motor Skills 5, 199 (1955).

L. T. Troland, Psych. Review 22, 167 (1951).

L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1 (1917).

J. M. Enoch, Summated Response of the Retina to Light Entering Different Parts of the Pupil, Ph.D. Dissertation (Ohio State University, 1956).

G. Bocchino, Optica 1, 136 (1936).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Atti Fond. G. Ronchi 2, 100 (1947).

Ercoles, Ronchi, Toraldo di Francia, Optica Acta 3, 84 (1956). Contact authors for corrected data.

L. Ronchi, Optica Acta 2, 47 (1955).

H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (Blakiston Company Philadelphia, 1950), p. 88.

A. Ivanoff, Rev. Opt. (1953).

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