Abstract

Contradictory additivity data of previous investigators, defined as the summated response of the retina to light entering different parts of the pupil, have led to an intensive study of variables inherent in these measurements. The experimental results have demonstrated that the Maxwellian and the ordinary type of viewing may be used interchangeably in Stiles-Crawford and additivity effect experiments. The experiments conducted in this research have revealed that additivity data are affected by at least the following two factors: the Stiles-Crawford effect and the blur of the retinal image. When blur is eliminated in additivity studies, the Stiles-Crawford effect does not reduce perceived brightness as much as might be predicted. The blur effect, caused by ocular aberrations, spherical and chromatic aberrations in particular, is a variable dependent upon the observer. This variability is thought to account for the several discrepancies in the data found in the literature. Experiments concerning the effect of blur on perceived brightness have been completed. It was shown that blur reduces perceived brightness of a field, and the degree of the reduction is dependent upon the test method.

© 1958 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. W. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).
  2. Koomen, Skolnik, and Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 80 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  3. Boynton, Enoch, and Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 875 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. LeGrand, Rev. opt. 2, 102–107 (1948).
  6. A. Arnulf, Comm. des Lab. de L’Inst. d’Opt. 1, 23 (1944).
  7. S. H. Bartley, Perceptual and Motor Skills 5, 199 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. T. Troland, Psych. Review 22, 167 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1 (1917).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. M. Enoch, Summated Response of the Retina to Light Entering Different Parts of the Pupil, Ph.D. Dissertation (Ohio State University, 1956).
  11. G. Bocchino, Optica 1, 136 (1936).
  12. G. Toraldo di Francia, Atti Fond. G. Ronchi 2, 100 (1947).
  13. Ercoles, Ronchi, and Toraldo di Francia, Optica Acta 3, 84 (1956). Contact authors for corrected data.
    [Crossref]
  14. L. Ronchi, Optica Acta 2, 47 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (Blakiston CompanyPhiladelphia, 1950), p. 88.
  16. A. Ivanoff, Rev. Opt. (1953).

1956 (1)

Ercoles, Ronchi, and Toraldo di Francia, Optica Acta 3, 84 (1956). Contact authors for corrected data.
[Crossref]

1955 (2)

L. Ronchi, Optica Acta 2, 47 (1955).
[Crossref]

S. H. Bartley, Perceptual and Motor Skills 5, 199 (1955).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

1953 (1)

A. Ivanoff, Rev. Opt. (1953).

1951 (2)

1948 (1)

Y. LeGrand, Rev. opt. 2, 102–107 (1948).

1947 (1)

G. Toraldo di Francia, Atti Fond. G. Ronchi 2, 100 (1947).

1944 (2)

A. Arnulf, Comm. des Lab. de L’Inst. d’Opt. 1, 23 (1944).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

G. Bocchino, Optica 1, 136 (1936).

1933 (1)

W. W. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

1917 (1)

L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1 (1917).
[Crossref]

Arnulf, A.

A. Arnulf, Comm. des Lab. de L’Inst. d’Opt. 1, 23 (1944).

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, Perceptual and Motor Skills 5, 199 (1955).
[Crossref]

Bocchino, G.

G. Bocchino, Optica 1, 136 (1936).

Boynton,

Bush,

Crawford, B. H.

W. W. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Enoch,

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, Summated Response of the Retina to Light Entering Different Parts of the Pupil, Ph.D. Dissertation (Ohio State University, 1956).

Ercoles,

Ercoles, Ronchi, and Toraldo di Francia, Optica Acta 3, 84 (1956). Contact authors for corrected data.
[Crossref]

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (Blakiston CompanyPhiladelphia, 1950), p. 88.

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff, Rev. Opt. (1953).

Koomen,

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Rev. opt. 2, 102–107 (1948).

Moon, P.

Ronchi,

Ercoles, Ronchi, and Toraldo di Francia, Optica Acta 3, 84 (1956). Contact authors for corrected data.
[Crossref]

Ronchi, L.

L. Ronchi, Optica Acta 2, 47 (1955).
[Crossref]

Skolnik,

Spencer, D. E.

Stiles, W. W.

W. W. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Toraldo di Francia,

Ercoles, Ronchi, and Toraldo di Francia, Optica Acta 3, 84 (1956). Contact authors for corrected data.
[Crossref]

Toraldo di Francia, G.

G. Toraldo di Francia, Atti Fond. G. Ronchi 2, 100 (1947).

Tousey,

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, Psych. Review 22, 167 (1951).
[Crossref]

L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1 (1917).
[Crossref]

Atti Fond. G. Ronchi (1)

G. Toraldo di Francia, Atti Fond. G. Ronchi 2, 100 (1947).

Comm. des Lab. de L’Inst. d’Opt. (1)

A. Arnulf, Comm. des Lab. de L’Inst. d’Opt. 1, 23 (1944).

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1 (1917).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Optica (1)

G. Bocchino, Optica 1, 136 (1936).

Optica Acta (2)

Ercoles, Ronchi, and Toraldo di Francia, Optica Acta 3, 84 (1956). Contact authors for corrected data.
[Crossref]

L. Ronchi, Optica Acta 2, 47 (1955).
[Crossref]

Perceptual and Motor Skills (1)

S. H. Bartley, Perceptual and Motor Skills 5, 199 (1955).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

W. W. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Psych. Review (1)

L. T. Troland, Psych. Review 22, 167 (1951).
[Crossref]

Rev. opt. (1)

Y. LeGrand, Rev. opt. 2, 102–107 (1948).

A. Ivanoff, Rev. Opt. (1953).

Other (2)

H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (Blakiston CompanyPhiladelphia, 1950), p. 88.

J. M. Enoch, Summated Response of the Retina to Light Entering Different Parts of the Pupil, Ph.D. Dissertation (Ohio State University, 1956).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stiles and Crawford’s luminous efficiency data, maximum at r=0.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Direct comparison apparatus used for measures of the Stiles-Crawford effect and additivity effect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Patterns seen objectively through the monitoring device for additivity effect and Stiles-Crawford effect experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Subjective pattern seen during all experiments using the direct comparison apparatus, centered and noncentered.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Blur apparatus used in studies of the effect of blur on photometric matching. Inset shows detail of variable blur device.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Subjective patterns viewed using the blur apparatus. The dashed lines indicate the limits of the penumbra for a given test situation. The nonblurred state is included.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Flicker photometry apparatus, used for studies of the additivity effect, and for the equating of a non-Maxwellian with a Maxwellian field.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Stiles-Crawford effect measurements of subject B.W. for three different experimental conditions with maximum at r=0. The theoretical curve proposed by the author is included.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Stiles-Crawford effect measurements of subject R.V. for three different experimental conditions with maximum at r=0. The theoretical curve proposed by the author is included.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Stiles-Crawford effect measurements of subject A.M. for three different experimental conditions with maximum at r=0. The theoretical curve proposed by the author is included.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of luminance of Maxwellian with non-Maxwellian field using equal but variable size entrance pupils and retinal image.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Data of subjects R.V. and A.M. for the additivity effect. Input line and prodicted curve are superimposed. Data for white and monochromatic light are presented.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Data of subject B.W. for the additivity effect. Input line and predicted curve are superimposed. Data for white and monochromatic light are presented.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

The effect of varying the angular subtense of the penumbra (blur apparatus) on perceived brightness of a test field.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

The blur effect for three different size apertures as a function of dioptric power placed before the eye.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Addivity effect for three apertures with a −1 and +2 diopter lens placed before the eye. Note, area changes slightly with lens power. Input line and theoretical addivity curve have been included.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Correction of spherical aberration for the three subjects.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Additivity for aberration corrected annular zones projected in the entrance pupil. This may be considered as a relative efficiency plot. See Table II for dimensions of annuli.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Addivity effect data for three subjects using flicker photometry. Input and theoretical additivity curve have been included.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Apertures employed in the additivity effect and Stiles-Crawford effect experiments.

Tables Icon

Table II Annular zone dimensions in the entrance pupil.

Tables Icon

Table III Entrance pupil dimensions used in conjunction with additivity effect studies on the flicker apparatus.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η = B r B r = 0 = f ( r ) ,
tan θ = 0.045 r .
η = 0.25 ( 1 + cos 9.5 θ ) 2 .