Abstract

Data on perceived brightness and visual acuity were obtained under essentially identical conditions of steady and intermittent illumination, using long exposures (up to 45 sec) as well as brief ones (250 msec). Flicker frequencies down to 8 cps and light-time fraction to 0.083 were sampled. By taking into account the exact duration of the test exposures, a more general form of Talbot’s law was derived, which fits all the brightness matches obtained. When this new equation is used as a yardstick, intermittent illumination turns out to be less efficient than steady illumination so far as visual acuity is concerned for brief exposures. For long exposures it is more efficient, as was previously reported by Senders.

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  1. V. L. Senders, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 453–465 (1949).
  2. S. J. Geratewohl and W. F. Taylor, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 278–282 (1953).
  3. V. L. Senders, J. Exptl. Psychol. 47, 135–136 (1954).
  4. S. Hecht, Physiol. Rev. 17, 239–290 (1937).
  5. E. P. Hyde, Bull. Bur. Standards 2, 1 (1906).
  6. S. H. Bartley, J. Psychol. 32, 57–6295(11).
  7. R. H. Mitchell and L. H. Liandausky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 831–834 (1955).
  8. S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 23, 313–319 (1938).
  9. S. Hecht, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology, edited by Murchison (Clark University Press, Worcester, Massachusetts, 1934), pp. 704–828.
  10. C. H. Graham and C. Cook, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 654–661 (1937).
  11. E. Davy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 937–941 (1952).
  12. S. Hecht and E. U. Mintz, J. Gen. Physiol. 22,593–612 (1939). Actually, the authors assert that the resolution of a grating is limited by the grain of the retinal mosaic before an otherwise minimal value of ΔI/I is reached.
  13. R. W. Ditchburn, Research 9, 466–471 (1956).
  14. Riggs, Ratliff, Cornsweet, and Cornsweet. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495–501 (1953).

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 23, 313–319 (1938).

S. H. Bartley, J. Psychol. 32, 57–6295(11).

Cook, C.

C. H. Graham and C. Cook, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 654–661 (1937).

Davy, E.

E. Davy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 937–941 (1952).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Research 9, 466–471 (1956).

Geratewohl, S. J.

S. J. Geratewohl and W. F. Taylor, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 278–282 (1953).

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and C. Cook, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 654–661 (1937).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, Physiol. Rev. 17, 239–290 (1937).

S. Hecht, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology, edited by Murchison (Clark University Press, Worcester, Massachusetts, 1934), pp. 704–828.

S. Hecht and E. U. Mintz, J. Gen. Physiol. 22,593–612 (1939). Actually, the authors assert that the resolution of a grating is limited by the grain of the retinal mosaic before an otherwise minimal value of ΔI/I is reached.

Hyde, E. P.

E. P. Hyde, Bull. Bur. Standards 2, 1 (1906).

Liandausky, L. H.

R. H. Mitchell and L. H. Liandausky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 831–834 (1955).

Mintz, E. U.

S. Hecht and E. U. Mintz, J. Gen. Physiol. 22,593–612 (1939). Actually, the authors assert that the resolution of a grating is limited by the grain of the retinal mosaic before an otherwise minimal value of ΔI/I is reached.

Mitchell, R. H.

R. H. Mitchell and L. H. Liandausky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 831–834 (1955).

Senders, V. L.

V. L. Senders, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 453–465 (1949).

V. L. Senders, J. Exptl. Psychol. 47, 135–136 (1954).

Taylor, W. F.

S. J. Geratewohl and W. F. Taylor, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 278–282 (1953).

Other (14)

V. L. Senders, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 453–465 (1949).

S. J. Geratewohl and W. F. Taylor, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 278–282 (1953).

V. L. Senders, J. Exptl. Psychol. 47, 135–136 (1954).

S. Hecht, Physiol. Rev. 17, 239–290 (1937).

E. P. Hyde, Bull. Bur. Standards 2, 1 (1906).

S. H. Bartley, J. Psychol. 32, 57–6295(11).

R. H. Mitchell and L. H. Liandausky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 831–834 (1955).

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 23, 313–319 (1938).

S. Hecht, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology, edited by Murchison (Clark University Press, Worcester, Massachusetts, 1934), pp. 704–828.

C. H. Graham and C. Cook, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 654–661 (1937).

E. Davy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 937–941 (1952).

S. Hecht and E. U. Mintz, J. Gen. Physiol. 22,593–612 (1939). Actually, the authors assert that the resolution of a grating is limited by the grain of the retinal mosaic before an otherwise minimal value of ΔI/I is reached.

R. W. Ditchburn, Research 9, 466–471 (1956).

Riggs, Ratliff, Cornsweet, and Cornsweet. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495–501 (1953).

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