Abstract

A laboratory method is proposed for measuring, as a function of wavelength, the scattering per unit volume of distilled and natural waters. The method employs special fixtures and techniques on the G.E. Spectrophotometer. It is best suited to hydrosols in which scattering and absorption are not excessive.

© 1957 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. S. Pritchard and W. G. Elliott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 113(A) (1957).
  2. R. G. Beuttell and A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instr. 26, 357–359 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952), pp. 200–206.
  4. J. M. Waldram, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 319–336 (1945); Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 10, 147–188 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 698–705 (1945).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. E. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 346(A) (1957).
    [Crossref]

1957 (2)

B. S. Pritchard and W. G. Elliott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 113(A) (1957).

J. E. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 346(A) (1957).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

R. G. Beuttell and A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instr. 26, 357–359 (1949).
[Crossref]

1945 (2)

J. M. Waldram, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 319–336 (1945); Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 10, 147–188 (1945).
[Crossref]

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 698–705 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beuttell, R. G.

R. G. Beuttell and A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instr. 26, 357–359 (1949).
[Crossref]

Brewer, A. W.

R. G. Beuttell and A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instr. 26, 357–359 (1949).
[Crossref]

Elliott, W. G.

B. S. Pritchard and W. G. Elliott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 113(A) (1957).

Hulburt, E. O.

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952), pp. 200–206.

Pritchard, B. S.

B. S. Pritchard and W. G. Elliott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 113(A) (1957).

Tyler, J. E.

J. E. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 346(A) (1957).
[Crossref]

Waldram, J. M.

J. M. Waldram, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 319–336 (1945); Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 10, 147–188 (1945).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

B. S. Pritchard and W. G. Elliott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 113(A) (1957).

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 698–705 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 346(A) (1957).
[Crossref]

J. Sci. Instr. (1)

R. G. Beuttell and A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instr. 26, 357–359 (1949).
[Crossref]

Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

J. M. Waldram, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 319–336 (1945); Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 10, 147–188 (1945).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

W. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952), pp. 200–206.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of sphere for scattering measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of glass sphere in position on the Hardy spectrophotometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scattering data for a gum mastic preparation in various concentrations. Note that selective absorption, if present in the hydrosol, would result in an increase in the instrument reading.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Conformity with Beer’s law. These data are at 500 mμ. A linear relationship was also found at 410, 450, 550, 600, 650, and 700.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Solution of Eq. (5) for same typical values of s′ and μ′.

Equations (10)

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T = e - x ( μ + s ) ,
x s P 1 + y r 1 m P 1 .
x s P 2 + y r 2 m P 2
x s P 1 + y r 1 m P 1 = x s P 2 + y r 2 m P 2
W = P 1 P 2 = x s + y r 2 m x s + y r 1 m .
W = ( s + r 2 / m ) / ( s + r 1 m ) .
W = s / ( s + m ) ,
W = 1 - e - s x 1 1 - ( e - s x 1 ) ( 1 - e - μ x 1 ) ,
ln ( 1 - S ) = - s c x 1 ,
( W - S ) / S ,