Abstract

<p>This work represents the first stress-optical study of strontium titanate (SrTiO<sub>3</sub>). The report includes a brief review of previous stress-optical work on crystals, a brief review of synthetic SrTiO<sub>3</sub>, and a brief review of stress-optical theory. The remainder of the paper is divided into two parts: Part I describes the piezobirefringence experimental apparatus and experimental procedure, sources of error and corrections, the measured values of the piezobirefringence constants (<i>q</i><sub>2211</sub>-<i>q</i><sub>1111</sub>) and 2<i>q</i><sub>1212</sub> for the spectral range 4200–7700 A in steps of 100 A, an investigation of the linearity of the stress-optical relationship up to "moderate" pressures, and an investigation of stress-optical hysteresis up to "moderate" pressures. Part II covers the following: the problem of measuring the absolute values of stress-optical constants <i>q</i><sub>1111</sub> and <i>q</i><sub>2211</sub>, apparatus and procedure, sources of error, the measured values of the stress-optical constants at 5400 A, the theoretical change in index of refraction under an hydrostatic stress, and confirmation of the linearity of the stressoptical relationship up to "moderate" pressures.</p><p>Strontium titanate has been found to become an optically negative uniaxial crystal when stressed along a crystallographic axis and an optically negative biaxial crystal when under a crystallographic diagonal stress.</p>

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  2. G. Wertheim, Compt. rend. 33, 576 (1851).
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  10. S. Bhagavantam and D. Suryanarayana, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 25, 97 (1947).
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  13. E. Burstein and P. Smith, Phys. Rev. 74, 1880 (1948).
  14. C. West and J. Makas, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 427 (1948).
  15. C. West and J. Makas, Am. Mineralogist 35, 130 (1950).
  16. P. Grodzinski, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 1, 246 (1950).
  17. K. Iyengar, Nature 176, 1119 (1955).
  18. E. Poindexter, Am. Mineralogist 40, 1032 (1955).
  19. H. Mueller, Phys. Rev. 47, 947 (1935).
  20. F. Pockels, Weid. Ann. phys. 37, 151 (1889).
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  26. Levin (personal communication).
  27. S. Bhagavantani, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 15, 97 (1942).
  28. F. Fumi, Acta Cryst. 5, 44 (1952).
  29. F. Fumi, Nuovo cimento 9, No. 9, 1 (1952).
  30. A. Brown and V. Hickson, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 1, 39 (1950).

Bhagavantam, S.

S. Bhagavantam and D. Suryanarayana, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 25, 97 (1947).

Bhagavantani, S.

S. Bhagavantani, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 15, 97 (1942).

Brewster, D.

D. Brewster, Phil. Trans. 60 (1815).

Brown, A.

A. Brown and V. Hickson, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 1, 39 (1950).

Burstein, E.

E. Burstein and P. Smith, Phys. Rev. 74, 229 (1948).

E. Burstein and P. Smith, Phys. Rev. 74, 1880 (1948).

Coker, E.

E. Coker and L. Filon, A Treatise on Photoelasticity (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1931).

Filon, L.

E. Coker and L. Filon, A Treatise on Photoelasticity (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1931).

Fumi, F.

F. Fumi, Nuovo cimento 9, No. 9, 1 (1952).

F. Fumi, Acta Cryst. 5, 44 (1952).

Grodzinski, P.

P. Grodzinski, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 1, 246 (1950).

Herzfeld, K.

K. Herzfeld and R. Lee, Phys. Rev. 44, 625 (1933).

Hickson, V.

A. Brown and V. Hickson, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 1, 39 (1950).

Iyengar, K.

K. Iyengar, Nature 176, 1119 (1955).

Lee, R.

K. Herzfeld and R. Lee, Phys. Rev. 44, 625 (1933).

Levin, S.

Levin (personal communication).

Lynd, L.

L. Merker and L. Lynd, U. S. Pat. 2,628,156, February 10, 1953.

Makas, J.

C. West and J. Makas, Am. Mineralogist 35, 130 (1950).

C. West and J. Makas, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 427 (1948).

Merker, L.

L. Merker and L. Lynd, U. S. Pat. 2,628,156, February 10, 1953.

L. Merker, Mining Eng. 645 (1955); Trans. Am. Inst. Mining Met. Eng. 202 (1955).

Mueller, H.

H. Mueller, Phys. Rev. 47, 947 (1935).

H. Mueller, Z. Krist. A99, 122 (1938).

Pockels, F.

F. Pockels, Lehrbuch der Kristalloptik (Leipzig-Berlin, 1906).

F. Pockels, Weid. Ann. phys. 37, 151 (1889).

Poindexter, E.

E. Poindexter, Am. Mineralogist 40, 1032 (1955).

Ramachandran, G.

G. Ramachandran, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 32, 171 (1950).

Schramm, C.

C. Schramm, Ann. phys. 25, 309 (1935).

Smith, P.

E. Burstein and P. Smith, Phys. Rev. 74, 1880 (1948).

E. Burstein and P. Smith, Phys. Rev. 74, 229 (1948).

Suryanarayana, D.

S. Bhagavantam and D. Suryanarayana, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 25, 97 (1947).

Voigt, W.

W. Voigt, Handbuch der Kristallphysik (Teubner, Leipzig, 1910).

Wertheim, G.

G. Wertheim, Compt. rend. 33, 576 (1851).

G. Wertheim, Ann. chim. phys. 40, Ser. III, 156 (1854).

West, C.

C. West and J. Makas, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 427 (1948).

C. West and J. Makas, Am. Mineralogist 35, 130 (1950).

Other (30)

D. Brewster, Phil. Trans. 60 (1815).

G. Wertheim, Compt. rend. 33, 576 (1851).

G. Wertheim, Ann. chim. phys. 40, Ser. III, 156 (1854).

E. Coker and L. Filon, A Treatise on Photoelasticity (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1931).

F. Pockels, Lehrbuch der Kristalloptik (Leipzig-Berlin, 1906).

W. Voigt, Handbuch der Kristallphysik (Teubner, Leipzig, 1910).

C. Schramm, Ann. phys. 25, 309 (1935).

H. Mueller, Z. Krist. A99, 122 (1938).

K. Herzfeld and R. Lee, Phys. Rev. 44, 625 (1933).

S. Bhagavantam and D. Suryanarayana, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 25, 97 (1947).

G. Ramachandran, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 32, 171 (1950).

E. Burstein and P. Smith, Phys. Rev. 74, 229 (1948).

E. Burstein and P. Smith, Phys. Rev. 74, 1880 (1948).

C. West and J. Makas, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 427 (1948).

C. West and J. Makas, Am. Mineralogist 35, 130 (1950).

P. Grodzinski, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 1, 246 (1950).

K. Iyengar, Nature 176, 1119 (1955).

E. Poindexter, Am. Mineralogist 40, 1032 (1955).

H. Mueller, Phys. Rev. 47, 947 (1935).

F. Pockels, Weid. Ann. phys. 37, 151 (1889).

Palache, Berman, and Frondel, Dana's System of Mineralogy (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1944), seventh edition, Vol. I.

L. Merker and L. Lynd, U. S. Pat. 2,628,156, February 10, 1953.

L. Merker, Mining Eng. 645 (1955); Trans. Am. Inst. Mining Met. Eng. 202 (1955).

Naray-Szabo, Naturwissenschaften 31, 203 (1943).

Levin, Field, Plock, and Merker, J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 45, 737 (1955).

Levin (personal communication).

S. Bhagavantani, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 15, 97 (1942).

F. Fumi, Acta Cryst. 5, 44 (1952).

F. Fumi, Nuovo cimento 9, No. 9, 1 (1952).

A. Brown and V. Hickson, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 1, 39 (1950).

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