Abstract

Accommodation is measured by flashing into one eye for 0.05 second every 10 seconds a beam whose configuration indicates whether the subject’s eye is over-accommodated, under-accommodated, or correctly accommodated for the measuring level. The exposure of the measuring beam is short enough not to contaminate the results with accommodative responses to it. Changes in accommodation can thus be followed by a bracketing procedure.

The visual stimulus presented to the eye is an empty field, both a completely dark one and one with a bright central area without sharp contours. The eye responds to this kind of stimulation by a fluctuating level of accommodation, with an average level of a little over 1D and with peak-to-trough amplitude of the oscillations of up to 1D, the most prominent period of the fluctuations being about two minutes. Harmonic analysis reveals that, while individual accommodation/time curves show strong frequency bands, there are no characteristic frequencies either for an observer or for a stimulus situation.

© 1957 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Wiener, Acta Mathematica 55, 117 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. K. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 29, 69 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. C. D. Whiteside and F. W. Campbell, “Accommodation of the human eye in an empty visual field,” (March, 1953).
  4. N. B. Chin and R. E. Horn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 60 (1956).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. F. W. Campbell, Brit. Orthop. J. 11, 13 (1954).
  6. M. J. Allen, Am. J. Optom. 32, 422 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B121, 376 (1936).

1956 (1)

1955 (1)

M. J. Allen, Am. J. Optom. 32, 422 (1955).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

F. W. Campbell, Brit. Orthop. J. 11, 13 (1954).

1952 (1)

H. K. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 29, 69 (1952).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B121, 376 (1936).

1930 (1)

N. Wiener, Acta Mathematica 55, 117 (1930).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. J.

M. J. Allen, Am. J. Optom. 32, 422 (1955).
[Crossref]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, Brit. Orthop. J. 11, 13 (1954).

T. C. D. Whiteside and F. W. Campbell, “Accommodation of the human eye in an empty visual field,” (March, 1953).

Chin, N. B.

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B121, 376 (1936).

Horn, R. E.

Knoll, H. K.

H. K. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 29, 69 (1952).
[Crossref]

Whiteside, T. C. D.

T. C. D. Whiteside and F. W. Campbell, “Accommodation of the human eye in an empty visual field,” (March, 1953).

Wiener, N.

N. Wiener, Acta Mathematica 55, 117 (1930).
[Crossref]

Acta Mathematica (1)

N. Wiener, Acta Mathematica 55, 117 (1930).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Optom. (2)

H. K. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 29, 69 (1952).
[Crossref]

M. J. Allen, Am. J. Optom. 32, 422 (1955).
[Crossref]

Brit. Orthop. J. (1)

F. W. Campbell, Brit. Orthop. J. 11, 13 (1954).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B121, 376 (1936).

Other (1)

T. C. D. Whiteside and F. W. Campbell, “Accommodation of the human eye in an empty visual field,” (March, 1953).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical system: A achromatic lens, B biprism-lens combination, C condensing lens system, F filter box, H half-silvered glass plate, L streak filament 2.5-volt lamp, M mirror, P electromagnetically operated focal plane shutter, S slit, Sh electromagnetically operated shutter, T accommodation target, V 6 volt, 2.75-amp lamp. Arrows indicate moving parts and the direction of their possible movement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the accommodation measuring system. A streak filament M is imaged by the lens-biprism combination and the other lens as a pair of line images M′ in the plane of the pupil of the subject’s eye. The slit N, transilluminated by the light from the streak filament, is imaged on the retina. The upper part of the retinal image N′ is derived from rays from the lower part of the slit N that pass through the right one of the pair of images M′.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram illustrating path of the rays in the two sheets M′ of Fig. 2 as they form the two parts of the line image on the retina. If the retina is not exactly in the image plane, the two beams will not be in alignment.

Figs. 4 and 5
Figs. 4 and 5

Top: Accommodation changes in complete darkness in one subject. ∨ indicates a measuring beam presentation reported by the subject as having the “under-accommodation” configuration, ∧ one reported as having the “over-accommodation” configuration, and ○ one having the “correct accommodation” configuration. Middle: Autocorrelation function of the above curve. Bottom: Spectral density function of top curve, computed by means of a Fourier cosine transformation of the autocorrelation function.