Abstract

Luminescent films of ZnS [Mn], Zn2SiO4 [Mn], Zn2(PO4)3 [Mn], and [Mn], CaF2 CaWO4[W] have been formed by evaporation in a vacuum and a subsequent heat treatment. Most of the films may be made either transparent or fogged depending on the post-heat treatment. The luminescent brightness of the fogged films, under cathode ray excitation, approaches the brightness of the bulk powdered material. The brightness of the transparent films is limited chiefly by internal reflection. In general, the phosphor chemistry of the powdered materials has been found to be applicable to thin films.

© 1957 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. De Boer and C. J. Dippel, U. S. Patent No. 1,954,691 (April10, 1934).
  2. F. E. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 302 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. C. Jamison, Philips Laboratories (personal communication).
  4. Studer, Cusano, and Young, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 559 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. W. Leverenz, An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1950), pp. 432–435.
  6. F. J. Studer and D. A. Cusano, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 493 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Spectra Brightness Spotmeter; 12° ultra-sensitive model, Photo Research Corporation, Hollywood, California.
  8. The luminescent materials used in this study, with the exception of CaF2, were supplied by E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, and Sylvania Electric Products, Inc.
  9. D. A. Lyon, Hill Building, Washington, D. C., patent pending (CuI conducting films are not as stable as the SnOx films).
  10. R. J. Ginther, J. Electrochem. Soc. 101, 248 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. A. Kröger, Luminescence in Solids Containing Manganese (N. V. Drukkerij Jacob van Campen, Amsterdam, 1940).
  12. A. L. Smith, J. Electrochem. Soc. 98, 363 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  13. The electron beam current of 10 μ a represents the total current collected, including secondaries, at the post-ultor (post-deflection) electrode of the tube. The actual current falling on the films is less than this value.
  14. P. H. Dowling and J. R. Sewell, J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 22 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. R. Koller and E. D. Alden, Phys. Rev. 83, 684 (1951).
    [CrossRef]

1955 (1)

1954 (1)

R. J. Ginther, J. Electrochem. Soc. 101, 248 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

P. H. Dowling and J. R. Sewell, J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 22 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1951 (3)

L. R. Koller and E. D. Alden, Phys. Rev. 83, 684 (1951).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Smith, J. Electrochem. Soc. 98, 363 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Studer, Cusano, and Young, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 559 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

Alden, E. D.

L. R. Koller and E. D. Alden, Phys. Rev. 83, 684 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Cusano,

Cusano, D. A.

De Boer, J. H.

J. H. De Boer and C. J. Dippel, U. S. Patent No. 1,954,691 (April10, 1934).

Dippel, C. J.

J. H. De Boer and C. J. Dippel, U. S. Patent No. 1,954,691 (April10, 1934).

Dowling, P. H.

P. H. Dowling and J. R. Sewell, J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 22 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Ginther, R. J.

R. J. Ginther, J. Electrochem. Soc. 101, 248 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, N. C.

N. C. Jamison, Philips Laboratories (personal communication).

Koller, L. R.

L. R. Koller and E. D. Alden, Phys. Rev. 83, 684 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Kröger, F. A.

F. A. Kröger, Luminescence in Solids Containing Manganese (N. V. Drukkerij Jacob van Campen, Amsterdam, 1940).

Leverenz, H. W.

H. W. Leverenz, An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1950), pp. 432–435.

Lyon, D. A.

D. A. Lyon, Hill Building, Washington, D. C., patent pending (CuI conducting films are not as stable as the SnOx films).

Sewell, J. R.

P. H. Dowling and J. R. Sewell, J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 22 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. L.

A. L. Smith, J. Electrochem. Soc. 98, 363 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Studer,

Studer, F. J.

Williams, F. E.

Young,

J. Electrochem. Soc. (3)

R. J. Ginther, J. Electrochem. Soc. 101, 248 (1954).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Smith, J. Electrochem. Soc. 98, 363 (1951).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Dowling and J. R. Sewell, J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 22 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. R. Koller and E. D. Alden, Phys. Rev. 83, 684 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. H. De Boer and C. J. Dippel, U. S. Patent No. 1,954,691 (April10, 1934).

The electron beam current of 10 μ a represents the total current collected, including secondaries, at the post-ultor (post-deflection) electrode of the tube. The actual current falling on the films is less than this value.

F. A. Kröger, Luminescence in Solids Containing Manganese (N. V. Drukkerij Jacob van Campen, Amsterdam, 1940).

Spectra Brightness Spotmeter; 12° ultra-sensitive model, Photo Research Corporation, Hollywood, California.

The luminescent materials used in this study, with the exception of CaF2, were supplied by E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, and Sylvania Electric Products, Inc.

D. A. Lyon, Hill Building, Washington, D. C., patent pending (CuI conducting films are not as stable as the SnOx films).

H. W. Leverenz, An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1950), pp. 432–435.

N. C. Jamison, Philips Laboratories (personal communication).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral emission of luminescent films. 1. CaF2 (pure). 2. CaF2 [5% Mn]. 3. CaF2 [10% Mn]. 4. β Zn2(PO4)3 [Mn]. 5. α Zn2(PO4)3 [Mn].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral emission of luminescent films. 6. CaWO4 [W]. 7. Zn2SiO4 [Mn]. 8. ZnS [Mn]. 9. ZnS (unfired).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Brightness of clear ZnS [Mn] films as a function of electron beam voltage. Measured with a beam current of approximately 10 μa/cm2 (see reference 12).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Brightness of thin CaF2 [Mn] films as a function of voltage. Illustrating the effect of the penetration of the film by electrons. Measured at approximately 5 μa/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Brightness of ZnS [Mn] films as a function of beam current. Measured with a beam voltage of 17 kv.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Relative brightness of transparent ZnS [Mn] film compared with scattering films and powders. Illustrating the effect of internal reflection of a transparent luminescent film.

Tables Icon

Table II Evaporation techniques used in forming luminescent films.

Tables Icon

Table III Emission peaks and brightness of luminescent films measured with a beam current of 10 μa/cm2 a and 12 kv.

Equations (1)

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solid angle subtended by the angle of critical reflection total solid angle = ( 1 - cos θ c ) 2 ,