Abstract

Thresholds are determined at various short times before and after the onset of a 38-mL conditioning stimulus in the dark-adapted eye, and following six other levels of pre-adaptation. An outstanding feature of the results is that under certain conditions thresholds decrease with increasing pre-adapting luminance. The results are considered to provide an indirect picture of on-responses in the visual system. The relation between “masking” associated with these on-responses and those effects attributable to photochemical bleaching is assessed and discussed.

© 1957 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B134, 283 (1947).
  2. H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 172 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. M. Boynton and M. H. Triedman, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 125 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  4. Boynton, Bush, and Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 56 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1047 (1955).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 839 (1955).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. See, e.g., S. S. Stevens and H. Davis, Hearing (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1938).
  8. H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 798 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Riggs, Ratliff, Cornsweet, and Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. physiol. et pathol. gén. 4, 632 (1902).
  11. M. Alpern (personal communication).
  12. E. Brücke, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Kl. 49, 1128 (1864).
  13. D. Brewster, Phil. Mag. (3d series)  4, 241 (1834).
  14. S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 23, 313 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 690 (1940).
  16. Hartline, Wagner, and MacNichol, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia Quant. Biol. 17, 125 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. D. Adrian and R. Matthews, J. Physiol. 65, 273 (1928).
  18. See, e.g., Riggs, Berry, and Wayner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 427 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. A. Riggs and C. H. Graham, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 16, 15 (1940).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Wald, Science 119, 887 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1955 (2)

1954 (2)

1953 (3)

1952 (1)

Hartline, Wagner, and MacNichol, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia Quant. Biol. 17, 125 (1952).
[Crossref]

1949 (2)

1947 (1)

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B134, 283 (1947).

1940 (2)

L. A. Riggs and C. H. Graham, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 16, 15 (1940).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 690 (1940).

1938 (1)

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 23, 313 (1938).
[Crossref]

1928 (1)

E. D. Adrian and R. Matthews, J. Physiol. 65, 273 (1928).

1902 (1)

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. physiol. et pathol. gén. 4, 632 (1902).

1864 (1)

E. Brücke, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Kl. 49, 1128 (1864).

1834 (1)

D. Brewster, Phil. Mag. (3d series)  4, 241 (1834).

Adrian, E. D.

E. D. Adrian and R. Matthews, J. Physiol. 65, 273 (1928).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern (personal communication).

Baker, H. D.

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 23, 313 (1938).
[Crossref]

Berry,

Boynton,

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and M. H. Triedman, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 125 (1953).
[Crossref]

Brewster, D.

D. Brewster, Phil. Mag. (3d series)  4, 241 (1834).

Broca, A.

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. physiol. et pathol. gén. 4, 632 (1902).

Brücke, E.

E. Brücke, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Kl. 49, 1128 (1864).

Bush,

Bush, W. R.

Cornsweet,

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B134, 283 (1947).

Davis, H.

See, e.g., S. S. Stevens and H. Davis, Hearing (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1938).

Enoch,

Graham, C. H.

L. A. Riggs and C. H. Graham, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 16, 15 (1940).
[Crossref]

Hartline,

Hartline, Wagner, and MacNichol, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia Quant. Biol. 17, 125 (1952).
[Crossref]

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 690 (1940).

MacNichol,

Hartline, Wagner, and MacNichol, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia Quant. Biol. 17, 125 (1952).
[Crossref]

Matthews, R.

E. D. Adrian and R. Matthews, J. Physiol. 65, 273 (1928).

Ratliff,

Riggs,

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and C. H. Graham, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 16, 15 (1940).
[Crossref]

Stevens, S. S.

See, e.g., S. S. Stevens and H. Davis, Hearing (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1938).

Sulzer, D.

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. physiol. et pathol. gén. 4, 632 (1902).

Triedman, M. H.

R. M. Boynton and M. H. Triedman, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 125 (1953).
[Crossref]

Wagner,

Hartline, Wagner, and MacNichol, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia Quant. Biol. 17, 125 (1952).
[Crossref]

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science 119, 887 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wayner,

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 690 (1940).

Cold Spring Harbor Symposia Quant. Biol. (1)

Hartline, Wagner, and MacNichol, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia Quant. Biol. 17, 125 (1952).
[Crossref]

J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. (1)

L. A. Riggs and C. H. Graham, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 16, 15 (1940).
[Crossref]

J. Exptl. Psychol. (2)

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 23, 313 (1938).
[Crossref]

R. M. Boynton and M. H. Triedman, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 125 (1953).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Physiol. (1)

E. D. Adrian and R. Matthews, J. Physiol. 65, 273 (1928).

J. physiol. et pathol. gén. (1)

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. physiol. et pathol. gén. 4, 632 (1902).

Phil. Mag. (1)

D. Brewster, Phil. Mag. (3d series)  4, 241 (1834).

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B134, 283 (1947).

Science (1)

G. Wald, Science 119, 887 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Kl. (1)

E. Brücke, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Kl. 49, 1128 (1864).

Other (2)

M. Alpern (personal communication).

See, e.g., S. S. Stevens and H. Davis, Hearing (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1938).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The three stimuli and fixation points as seen by the observers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagrammatic representation of the temporal sequence of stimuli used under the “on” and “off” conditions of the main experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Test-flash thresholds as a function of pre-adapting stimulus luminance for the “off” and “on” conditions, for a conditioning interval of 0.10 sec. The experimental data are mean values for the three subjects. The curve labeled “Bmp,” which results from the “on” condition, is considered to be determined by an interaction between photochemical bleaching (caused by the pre-adapting stimulus) and “masking” (caused by the conditioning stimulus). The curve labeled “Bp,” which results from the “off” condition (where no conditioning stimulus was used) is held to be the result of photochemical bleaching alone. The middle curve, labeled “Bm” is based on Eq. (2) in the text, and represents the threshold that would have been obtained had the masking effects produced by the conditioning stimulus been operative without the photochemical bleaching caused by the pre-adapting stimulus. B0 is the absolute cone threshold. The upper curve is the sum of the lower two with B0 as a base line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Test-flash thresholds as a function of pre-adapting luminance for the “off” and “on” conditions, for a conditioning interval of 0.10 sec. The experimental data are mean values for the three subjects. (See legend of Fig. 3 for further explanation.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Test-flash thresholds as a function of conditioning interval for the “off” and “on” conditions, for three of the pre-adapting luminances used in the experiment.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic representation of the relationships between the variables that are believed to be involved in this experiment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated values of Bm [see Eq. (2)] as a function of conditioning interval, with pre-adapting luminance as a parameter. The value Bm is intended to represent the threshold which would have been obtained, under each condition, were the “masking” effects of conditioning-stimulus onset operating alone, with the direct effects of photochemical bleaching (caused by the pre-adapting stimulus) factored out. These curves are therefore held to represent an indirect picture of on-responses in the human visual system to a 38-mL conditioning stimulus following various levels of pre-adaptation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A quantitative comparison between the results of the main experiment, where pre-adapting stimulus was extinguished prior to conditioning stimulus-test flash sequence, and an auxiliary experiment, where the adapting stimulus was allowed to remain on throughout the cycle. (See text for full explanation.) The results are held to indicate that the adaptive effects are the same, in principle, in each case, although the unextinguished adapting stimulus exerts a stronger effect because no time has been allowed for recovery to take place.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Experimental data for the “off” condition (where the conditioning stimulus was not used). Data for each of the three subjects (RB, GK, CT) are given, as well as the means. Values given are test-flash thresholds in log mL.

Tables Icon

Table II Experimental data for the “on” condition (where the conditioning stimulus was used). Data for each of the three subjects (RB, GK, CT) are given as well as the means. Values given are test-flash thresholds in log mL.

Tables Icon

Table III Calculated values of log Bm [defined in Eq. (2) in text].

Tables Icon

Table IV Data from supplementary experiment, where adapting stimulus was not extinguished, and comparable data from main experiment (where pre-adapting stimulus was extinguished 0.28 sec prior to conditioning stimulus onset) for the same two subjects (GK and CT). Values given are mean thresholds for the two subjects in log mL. Calculated values of log Bm [see Eq. (2)] are also given.

Equations (3)

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B m p = B m ( B p / B 0 ) .
log B m = log B m p - log B p + log B 0 .
log B m = log B c - log B 0 + log B 0 = log B c