Abstract

The human electroretinogram (ERG) was elicited by an abrupt replacement of a chromatic adaptation stimulus with a long duration test stimulus. It was found that the relative spectral sensitivity of the ERG was strongly dependent upon the color and luminance of the adaptation stimulus with adaptation to a particular color lowering sensitivity to the same part of the spectrum. Clear-cut responses were produced by test luminances below an adaptation luminance only when the two were far apart in the spectrum. Analysis of the data gave definite evidence for two spectral processes with maxima near 500 and 620 mμ. There was evidence for other possible processes in the green and blue but their maxima were not well defined.

© 1957 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 597 (1949).
    [Crossref]

1956 (1)

1955 (2)

Forbes, Burleigh, and Neyland, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 517 (1955).
[PubMed]

J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1058 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

1953 (1)

Wald, Brown, and Smith, Science 118, 505 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

1949 (2)

Armington, J. C.

Berry,

Biersdorf, W. R.

Brown,

Wald, Brown, and Smith, Science 118, 505 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burleigh,

Forbes, Burleigh, and Neyland, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 517 (1955).
[PubMed]

Forbes,

Forbes, Burleigh, and Neyland, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 517 (1955).
[PubMed]

Johnson, E. P.

E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 597 (1949).
[Crossref]

Neyland,

Forbes, Burleigh, and Neyland, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 517 (1955).
[PubMed]

Riggs,

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton (personal communication).

Smith,

Wald, Brown, and Smith, Science 118, 505 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiede, F. C.

Wald,

Wald, Brown, and Smith, Science 118, 505 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wayner,

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 597 (1949).
[Crossref]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

Forbes, Burleigh, and Neyland, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 517 (1955).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Science (1)

Wald, Brown, and Smith, Science 118, 505 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. A. H. Rushton (personal communication).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram (not to scale) of the dual beam optical stimulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristics of the lever shutter system as provided by two photocells and a dual trace CRO.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Responses obtained in the scotopic series. Subject FT. An upward deflection denotes corneal positivity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Luminance curves for the same scotopic conditions as Fig. 3. Subject FT. Each point is the average of three responses. The length and slopes of these curves are modified by the addition of colored adaptation stimuli.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Responses obtained upon turning off white adaptations with amounts of neutral filtering in beam as indicated (0.0=40 000 ft-L). Subject JA. Consistent off-effects were not found. The large downward deflection is a wink artifact.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral sensitivity of the ERG for 2 ft-L white and for 2 ft-L of white plus 7.3 ft-L color adaption. Selective effects, depending on the color of adaptation, are clearly noticeable.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral sensitivity of the ERG for 2 ft-L white plus 73 ft-L of color adaptation. The high white condition is for 20 ft-L of white adaptation alone. At least two spectral processes seem to be underlying the data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral sensitivity for 7.3 ft-L colored adaptation alone. The black condition is for adaptation to darkness. High scotopic ensitivity is found for the black and red adaptation conditions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral sensitivity for 73 ft-L colored adaptation alone. There are maxima near 500 and 620 mμ. Other processes may be present in the middle of the spectrum.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Response sensitivity for 73 ft-L colored adaptation alone based on response criteria of 25 and 40 μv. The higher criterion gives evidence of relatively greater scotopic sensitivity and lowers the sensitivity of the red process.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Logarithms of relative spectral energy for the photopic adaptation (2 ft-L white plus color) conditions. These data are for the two subjects, FT and BL, and are based on a 25-μv criterion.

Tables Icon

Table II Logarithms of relative spectral energy for the scotopic adaptation conditions. The data are for the two subjects FT and BL, and are based on a 25-μv criterion.