Abstract

A servomechanism is described which simulates the eye response in directing visual receptors. Feedback to provide corrective directing is based upon matching the images conducted to the “brain” by the neurons. The model uses photoelectric cells to receive the images. The image from each receptor unit (eye) is separated into two parts. The images are reproduced in the “brain” by illuminating light bulbs corresponding to the photoelectric cell receptors. A photoelectric scanner in the “brain” determines the amount of agreement of the images depicted by the several banks of light bulbs, Feedback leading to corrective directing (fusion) is produced by voltages generated in the scanner bridge circuit and causes a motor to oscillate the “eyeball” until images from both eyes are matched. Brain damage would cause continual oscillation of the eyeball and lead to the peculiar patterns drawn by some head-injured people.

© 1957 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Frank Netter, Nervous System (CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations, 1953), p. 63.
  2. John Armington (private communication, May15, 1956).

Armington, John

John Armington (private communication, May15, 1956).

Netter, Frank

Frank Netter, Nervous System (CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations, 1953), p. 63.

Other (2)

Frank Netter, Nervous System (CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations, 1953), p. 63.

John Armington (private communication, May15, 1956).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The lens on the right focuses an image upon the banks of photocells (shown as rectangles) which simulate the retina of the eye. Each photocell response is independently amplified sufficiently to light a light bulb. The array of light bulbs on the left reproduce the image patterns as “seen” by the retinas.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic system of driving the “eyes” to and fro by a feedback signal. The signal need not be polarized in this simple model. The stops trip a reversing switch which causes a hunting motion of the eyes until the feedback signal input ceases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The photocell bridge. Two bridge circuits with a relay form a logical “and” signal. Only if both pairs of photocells “see” different amounts of light does a voltage appear at the output (V). This scanning element is driven between the banks of light bulbs in Fig. 1, and provides a feedback signal to drive the amplifier and motor of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A schematic of the complete system. Feedback voltage is obtained from the mismatching of the front and rear image reproducing light bulbs as sensed by the photocell bridge of Fig. 3. The hunting motor turns one “eye” back and forth until both light banks reproduce the same image. In order to simplify the description, the other “eye” has no hunting motor shown.