Abstract

Fluorescent whitening agents improve the appearance of cloth or paper through two separate visual effects, a bluing effect and a lightening effect; the former is much more important than the latter. For any one shade of whitener, both the bluing and lightening effects are directly proportional to the effective fluorescence (defined here as the sum of the tristimulus values of the fluorescent light from the dyeing). However, when whiteners of different shades are compared at the same effective fluorescence, the greener-shade whitener has more of a lightening effect, but the redder-shade whitener has more of a bluing effect. These two advantages, one for the greener shade and the other for the redder shade, almost exactly cancel each other, so that at the same effective fluorescence both whiteners improve the cloth to the same degree. Effective fluorescence, as here defined, is therefore a reliable indication of whitening power irrespective of shade. This quantity may be measured on a fluorimeter, but an appropriate correction factor must be applied when two different whiteners are being compared.

© 1957 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Whiteness: photometric specification and colorimetric evaluation

Ernst Ganz
Appl. Opt. 15(9) 2039-2058 (1976)

Fluorescent White Dyes: Calculation of Fluorescence from Reflectivity Values

Eugene Allen
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54(4) 506-515 (1964)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (11)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Tables (2)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article tables are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (42)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription