Abstract

The two matching methods were compared to see whether they gave substantially different results. Such a difference would be of interest because successive matching is common in everyday life whereas simultaneous matching is standard colorimetric practice. An experiment was performed in which 25 test colors were matched by both methods. The successive or memory method yielded (1) the higher variability of replicative matchings, (2) the shorter matching times, (3) systematically higher purities, and (4) somewhat higher luminances. Three supplementary experiments are cited which are confirmatory with respect to the principal finding of extra purity and luminance usually required for the memory matches. This increased apparent strength of the remembered colors seems to be a direct consequence of the selectivity of memory.

© 1957 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Wulf, Psychol. Forsch. 1, 333–373 (1922).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Collins, Brit. J. Psychol. 22, 344–352 (1931–32).
  3. R. W. Burnham and J. R. Clark, J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164–172 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Koffka, Principles of Gestalt Psychology (Harcourt Brace and Company, Inc., New York, 1935).
  5. D. Katz, The World of Colour (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Company, Ltd., London, 1935).
  6. Bruner, Postman, and Rodrigues, Am. J. Psychol. 64, 216–227 (1951).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. E. Baker and I. Mackintosh, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 281–286 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. Köhler, Psychol. Forsch. 4, 115–175 (1923).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. G. Hanawalt and B. E. Post, J. Exptl. Psychol. 30, 216–227 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. S. Fullerton and J. McK. Cattell, On the Perception of Small Differences (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1892).
  11. O. Lauenstein, Psychol. Forsch. 17, 130–177 (1932).
  12. J. P. Guilford and D. G. Park, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 589–599 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. C. Pratt, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 292–297 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. 48, 254–256 (1953).
  15. R. W. Burnham, Am. J. Psychol. 65, 603–608 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. E. Jackson, Ind. Qual. Control 12, 4–8 (1956).
  17. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247–274 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. R. J. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 383(A) (1956).
    [Crossref]
  19. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41–65 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. G. Needham, Psychol. Bull. 31, 229–243 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. W. Granger, Nature 170, 778–780 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. P. Guilford, Psychometrika 4, 1–23 (1939).
    [Crossref]

1956 (2)

J. E. Jackson, Ind. Qual. Control 12, 4–8 (1956).

W. R. J. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 383(A) (1956).
[Crossref]

1955 (2)

R. W. Burnham and J. R. Clark, J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164–172 (1955).
[Crossref]

K. E. Baker and I. Mackintosh, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 281–286 (1955).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. 48, 254–256 (1953).

1952 (2)

R. W. Burnham, Am. J. Psychol. 65, 603–608 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Granger, Nature 170, 778–780 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

Bruner, Postman, and Rodrigues, Am. J. Psychol. 64, 216–227 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1946 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41–65 (1946).
[Crossref]

1942 (2)

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247–274 (1942).
[Crossref]

N. G. Hanawalt and B. E. Post, J. Exptl. Psychol. 30, 216–227 (1942).
[Crossref]

1939 (1)

J. P. Guilford, Psychometrika 4, 1–23 (1939).
[Crossref]

1934 (1)

J. G. Needham, Psychol. Bull. 31, 229–243 (1934).
[Crossref]

1933 (1)

C. C. Pratt, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 292–297 (1933).
[Crossref]

1932 (1)

O. Lauenstein, Psychol. Forsch. 17, 130–177 (1932).

1931 (1)

J. P. Guilford and D. G. Park, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 589–599 (1931).
[Crossref]

1923 (1)

W. Köhler, Psychol. Forsch. 4, 115–175 (1923).
[Crossref]

1922 (1)

F. Wulf, Psychol. Forsch. 1, 333–373 (1922).
[Crossref]

Baker, K. E.

K. E. Baker and I. Mackintosh, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 281–286 (1955).
[Crossref]

Brown, W. R. J.

W. R. J. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 383(A) (1956).
[Crossref]

Bruner,

Bruner, Postman, and Rodrigues, Am. J. Psychol. 64, 216–227 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnham, R. W.

R. W. Burnham and J. R. Clark, J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164–172 (1955).
[Crossref]

R. W. Burnham, Am. J. Psychol. 65, 603–608 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cattell, J. McK.

G. S. Fullerton and J. McK. Cattell, On the Perception of Small Differences (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1892).

Clark, J. R.

R. W. Burnham and J. R. Clark, J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164–172 (1955).
[Crossref]

Collins, M.

M. Collins, Brit. J. Psychol. 22, 344–352 (1931–32).

Fullerton, G. S.

G. S. Fullerton and J. McK. Cattell, On the Perception of Small Differences (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1892).

Granger, G. W.

G. W. Granger, Nature 170, 778–780 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guilford, J. P.

J. P. Guilford, Psychometrika 4, 1–23 (1939).
[Crossref]

J. P. Guilford and D. G. Park, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 589–599 (1931).
[Crossref]

Hanawalt, N. G.

N. G. Hanawalt and B. E. Post, J. Exptl. Psychol. 30, 216–227 (1942).
[Crossref]

Jackson, J. E.

J. E. Jackson, Ind. Qual. Control 12, 4–8 (1956).

Katz, D.

D. Katz, The World of Colour (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Company, Ltd., London, 1935).

Koffka, K.

K. Koffka, Principles of Gestalt Psychology (Harcourt Brace and Company, Inc., New York, 1935).

Köhler, W.

W. Köhler, Psychol. Forsch. 4, 115–175 (1923).
[Crossref]

Lauenstein, O.

O. Lauenstein, Psychol. Forsch. 17, 130–177 (1932).

MacAdam, D. L.

Mackintosh, I.

K. E. Baker and I. Mackintosh, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 281–286 (1955).
[Crossref]

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. 48, 254–256 (1953).

Needham, J. G.

J. G. Needham, Psychol. Bull. 31, 229–243 (1934).
[Crossref]

Park, D. G.

J. P. Guilford and D. G. Park, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 589–599 (1931).
[Crossref]

Post, B. E.

N. G. Hanawalt and B. E. Post, J. Exptl. Psychol. 30, 216–227 (1942).
[Crossref]

Postman,

Bruner, Postman, and Rodrigues, Am. J. Psychol. 64, 216–227 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pratt, C. C.

C. C. Pratt, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 292–297 (1933).
[Crossref]

Rodrigues,

Bruner, Postman, and Rodrigues, Am. J. Psychol. 64, 216–227 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanders, C. L.

W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. 48, 254–256 (1953).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41–65 (1946).
[Crossref]

Wulf, F.

F. Wulf, Psychol. Forsch. 1, 333–373 (1922).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Psychol. (4)

Bruner, Postman, and Rodrigues, Am. J. Psychol. 64, 216–227 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Guilford and D. G. Park, Am. J. Psychol. 43, 589–599 (1931).
[Crossref]

C. C. Pratt, Am. J. Psychol. 45, 292–297 (1933).
[Crossref]

R. W. Burnham, Am. J. Psychol. 65, 603–608 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brit. J. Psychol. (1)

M. Collins, Brit. J. Psychol. 22, 344–352 (1931–32).

Illum. Eng. (1)

W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. 48, 254–256 (1953).

Ind. Qual. Control (1)

J. E. Jackson, Ind. Qual. Control 12, 4–8 (1956).

J. Appl. Psychol. (1)

R. W. Burnham and J. R. Clark, J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164–172 (1955).
[Crossref]

J. Exptl. Psychol. (2)

K. E. Baker and I. Mackintosh, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 281–286 (1955).
[Crossref]

N. G. Hanawalt and B. E. Post, J. Exptl. Psychol. 30, 216–227 (1942).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247–274 (1942).
[Crossref]

W. R. J. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 383(A) (1956).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

G. W. Granger, Nature 170, 778–780 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41–65 (1946).
[Crossref]

Psychol. Bull. (1)

J. G. Needham, Psychol. Bull. 31, 229–243 (1934).
[Crossref]

Psychol. Forsch. (3)

F. Wulf, Psychol. Forsch. 1, 333–373 (1922).
[Crossref]

O. Lauenstein, Psychol. Forsch. 17, 130–177 (1932).

W. Köhler, Psychol. Forsch. 4, 115–175 (1923).
[Crossref]

Psychometrika (1)

J. P. Guilford, Psychometrika 4, 1–23 (1939).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

G. S. Fullerton and J. McK. Cattell, On the Perception of Small Differences (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1892).

K. Koffka, Principles of Gestalt Psychology (Harcourt Brace and Company, Inc., New York, 1935).

D. Katz, The World of Colour (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Company, Ltd., London, 1935).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Surround and central field used with both matching methods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic horizontal section of matching instrument.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variability of the successive or memory matches represented by 39% ellipses in the CIE chromaticity diagram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variability of the simultaneous or perceptual matches represented by 39% ellipses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chromaticities required for the successive or memory matches (arrow heads) as compared with the simultaneous or perceptual matches (arrow tails).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Observer variation in the hue-chroma differences between successive and simultaneous matches.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Observer variation in the value-hue differences between successive and simultaneous matches.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Predicted hue-chroma changes (dotted vectors) required for memory matches in comparison with observed changes (line vectors) required for the memory matches.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Predicted value-hue changes (dotted vectors) required for memory matches in comparison with observed changes (line vectors) required for the memory matches.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table I Munsell notations and CIE specifications of the test colors.

Tables Icon

Table II Times in seconds required for successive and simultaneous matching.

Tables Icon

Table III Munsell notations for the differences between the successive (M) and simultaneous (P) matches of each observer.

Tables Icon

Table IV Extra Munsell chroma and value required for memory matching.

Tables Icon

Table V Distribution of the match judgments with respect to the relative chroma and value of the gamut colors.

Tables Icon

Table VI Comparison of memory colors (M) with perceptual colors (P) of eight common objects as expressed in Munsell notation.

Tables Icon

Table VII Extra Munsell chroma required for memory matches of more impressive test colors as compared with less impressive.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H M = 1 / 3.6 arc tan A / B ( σ H M = 0.98 ) V M = 1.77 V P - 0.695 ( σ V M = 0.06 ) C M = ( A 2 + B 2 ) 1 2 ( σ C M = 0.25 )