Abstract

A limited study has shown that the diameter of the pupil of the eye is not related directly to the sensation of discomfort which results from a bright light source in the field of view. Other factors, especially the illumination received at the eye, govern the pupil diameter. The more concentrated the source producing the illumination at the eye, the greater the contraction of the pupil. When the eye is subjected to intolerable glare, the pupil not only contracts, but varies in diameter, dilating and contracting irregularly every few seconds.

The study indicates that the pupil diameter by itself cannot be used as an objective indicator of the degree of glare discomfort.

© 1956 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. S. Stiles, , H.M.S.O. (London, 1929).
  2. S. G. De Groot and J. W. Gebhard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 492 (1952).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Reeves, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 35 (1920).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B105, 131 (1930).
  5. Ferree, Rand, and Harris, J. Exptl. Psychol. 16, 408 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. J. Lythgoe, . H.M.S.O. (London, 1932).
  7. M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 130 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. G. Hopkinson, Quart. J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 124 (August, 1950).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Petherbridge and R. G. Hopkinson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 15, 39 (1950).
  10. J. Fugate and G. A. Fry, Illum. Eng. (N.Y.)1955 (to be published).
  11. H. K. Hartline and F. Ratliff, Science 120, 781 (1954).
  12. W. J. W. Ferguson (private communication, 1955).
  13. H. C. Weston (private communication, 1955).

1954 (1)

H. K. Hartline and F. Ratliff, Science 120, 781 (1954).

1952 (1)

1950 (2)

R. G. Hopkinson, Quart. J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 124 (August, 1950).
[CrossRef]

P. Petherbridge and R. G. Hopkinson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 15, 39 (1950).

1934 (1)

1933 (1)

Ferree, Rand, and Harris, J. Exptl. Psychol. 16, 408 (1933).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B105, 131 (1930).

1920 (1)

De Groot, S. G.

Ferguson, W. J. W.

W. J. W. Ferguson (private communication, 1955).

Ferree,

Ferree, Rand, and Harris, J. Exptl. Psychol. 16, 408 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Fry, G. A.

J. Fugate and G. A. Fry, Illum. Eng. (N.Y.)1955 (to be published).

Fugate, J.

J. Fugate and G. A. Fry, Illum. Eng. (N.Y.)1955 (to be published).

Gebhard, J. W.

Harris,

Ferree, Rand, and Harris, J. Exptl. Psychol. 16, 408 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline and F. Ratliff, Science 120, 781 (1954).

Hopkinson, R. G.

P. Petherbridge and R. G. Hopkinson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 15, 39 (1950).

R. G. Hopkinson, Quart. J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 124 (August, 1950).
[CrossRef]

Luckiesh, M.

Lythgoe, R. J.

R. J. Lythgoe, . H.M.S.O. (London, 1932).

Moss, F. K.

Petherbridge, P.

P. Petherbridge and R. G. Hopkinson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 15, 39 (1950).

Rand,

Ferree, Rand, and Harris, J. Exptl. Psychol. 16, 408 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Ratliff, F.

H. K. Hartline and F. Ratliff, Science 120, 781 (1954).

Reeves, P.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B105, 131 (1930).

W. S. Stiles, , H.M.S.O. (London, 1929).

Weston, H. C.

H. C. Weston (private communication, 1955).

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

Ferree, Rand, and Harris, J. Exptl. Psychol. 16, 408 (1933).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B105, 131 (1930).

Quart. J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

R. G. Hopkinson, Quart. J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 124 (August, 1950).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. K. Hartline and F. Ratliff, Science 120, 781 (1954).

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) (1)

P. Petherbridge and R. G. Hopkinson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 15, 39 (1950).

Other (5)

J. Fugate and G. A. Fry, Illum. Eng. (N.Y.)1955 (to be published).

R. J. Lythgoe, . H.M.S.O. (London, 1932).

W. J. W. Ferguson (private communication, 1955).

H. C. Weston (private communication, 1955).

W. S. Stiles, , H.M.S.O. (London, 1929).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Record of pupil after prolonged dark adaptation. Observer in darkness when photograph was taken. (b) Record of pupil after prolonged light adaptation. Observer looking directly at bright light source when photograph was taken.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Relation between source luminance and pupil diameter for two levels of background luminance. Observer A, first occasion. (b) Relation between source luminance and pupil diameter for two levels of background luminance. Observer A, second occasion. (c) Relation between source luminance and pupil diameter for two levels of background luminance and for dark background. Observer B.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relation between pupil diameter and background luminance (1) with glare source, (2) no glare source. Observer B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relation between pupil diameter and illumination of the eye from (a) a small source (b) an extended source. Observer B.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relief of glare discomfort by the aid of an intermediate surround to a glare source (“contrast grading”) is not accompanied by a change in pupil diameter. (Observations by observer A.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation in pupil diameter with time.