Abstract

Previous official color standards for maple sirup, designated Light Amber, Medium Amber, and Dark Amber, were solutions of sugar caramel in glycerin standardized in terms of transmittance at 560 mμ. These solutions were not satisfactory because of instability of color and inconvenience of repeated preparation. Glass color standards were accordingly developed to match the chromaticities of fresh standard solutions in 31.5 mm depth. An improved color comparator was devised for use with the glass standards. The caramel-glycerin solutions and maple sirups were characterized spectrophotometrically and in terms of several one-dimensional color scales in use in the sugar industry. Complete specifications for the standard solutions and new glass standards are presented in the CIE system. Color tolerances were established in MacAdam units of chromaticity difference and a simple one-wavelength method of testing glasses for the production of duplicate standards was developed.

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  1. A. H. Bryan, Bur. Chem. Bulletin No. 134 (1910) (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture).
  2. H. W. Wiley, Bur. Chem. Bulletin No. 93 (1905).
  3. R. T. Balch, Ind. Eng. Chem. 22, 255 (1930).
  4. C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), third edition, pp. 1172–1173.
  5. "United States standards for table maple sirup" and "United States standards for maple sirup for reprocessing," Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, issued February 7, 1940.
  6. Brice, Turner, Southerland, and Bostwick, "Permanent glass color standards for maple sirup," Bur. Agric. Ind. Chem. AIC-260 (February, 1950) (Eastern Regional Research Laboratory); also published in Canner 110, No, 6, 10 (1950).
  7. Deitz, Pennington, and Hoffman, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 365 (1952).
  8. M. L. Wolfrom, editor, Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1954), Vol. 9, pp. 247–284. "Color and turbidity of sugar products," by R. W. Liggett and V. R. Deitz.
  9. H. J. Keegan and K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 770 (1944).
  10. Gibson, Walker, and Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
  11. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933); D. B. Judd, "Colorimetry," Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. 478 (March 1, 1950).
  12. E. L. Sechrist, "The color grading of honey," U. S. Dept. Agric., Dept. Circ. 364 (October, 1925).
  13. Porter, Buch, and Willits, Food Research 17, 475 (1952).
  14. P. Hornig, editor, Principles of Sugar Technology (Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, 1953), Chap. 8, "Color and colored nonsugars," by T. R. Gillett.
  15. Gillett, Meads, and Holven, Anal. Chem. 21, 1228 (1949).
  16. H. H. Peters and F. P. Phelps, Natl. Bur. Standards Technol. Papers 21, 261 (1927), No. 338.
  17. D. B. Judd, Colar in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1952), p. 157.
  18. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 18 (1943).
  19. See reference 17, pp. 265–267, 352–357.

Balch, R. T.

R. T. Balch, Ind. Eng. Chem. 22, 255 (1930).

Browne, C. A.

C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), third edition, pp. 1172–1173.

Bryan, A. H.

A. H. Bryan, Bur. Chem. Bulletin No. 134 (1910) (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture).

Gibson, K. S.

H. J. Keegan and K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 770 (1944).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933); D. B. Judd, "Colorimetry," Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. 478 (March 1, 1950).

D. B. Judd, Colar in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1952), p. 157.

Keegan, H. J.

H. J. Keegan and K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 770 (1944).

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 18 (1943).

Peters, H. H.

H. H. Peters and F. P. Phelps, Natl. Bur. Standards Technol. Papers 21, 261 (1927), No. 338.

Phelps, F. P.

H. H. Peters and F. P. Phelps, Natl. Bur. Standards Technol. Papers 21, 261 (1927), No. 338.

Sechrist, E. L.

E. L. Sechrist, "The color grading of honey," U. S. Dept. Agric., Dept. Circ. 364 (October, 1925).

Wiley, H. W.

H. W. Wiley, Bur. Chem. Bulletin No. 93 (1905).

Zerban, F. W.

C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), third edition, pp. 1172–1173.

Other (19)

A. H. Bryan, Bur. Chem. Bulletin No. 134 (1910) (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture).

H. W. Wiley, Bur. Chem. Bulletin No. 93 (1905).

R. T. Balch, Ind. Eng. Chem. 22, 255 (1930).

C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), third edition, pp. 1172–1173.

"United States standards for table maple sirup" and "United States standards for maple sirup for reprocessing," Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, issued February 7, 1940.

Brice, Turner, Southerland, and Bostwick, "Permanent glass color standards for maple sirup," Bur. Agric. Ind. Chem. AIC-260 (February, 1950) (Eastern Regional Research Laboratory); also published in Canner 110, No, 6, 10 (1950).

Deitz, Pennington, and Hoffman, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 365 (1952).

M. L. Wolfrom, editor, Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1954), Vol. 9, pp. 247–284. "Color and turbidity of sugar products," by R. W. Liggett and V. R. Deitz.

H. J. Keegan and K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 770 (1944).

Gibson, Walker, and Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933); D. B. Judd, "Colorimetry," Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. 478 (March 1, 1950).

E. L. Sechrist, "The color grading of honey," U. S. Dept. Agric., Dept. Circ. 364 (October, 1925).

Porter, Buch, and Willits, Food Research 17, 475 (1952).

P. Hornig, editor, Principles of Sugar Technology (Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, 1953), Chap. 8, "Color and colored nonsugars," by T. R. Gillett.

Gillett, Meads, and Holven, Anal. Chem. 21, 1228 (1949).

H. H. Peters and F. P. Phelps, Natl. Bur. Standards Technol. Papers 21, 261 (1927), No. 338.

D. B. Judd, Colar in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1952), p. 157.

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 18 (1943).

See reference 17, pp. 265–267, 352–357.

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