Abstract

Previous official color standards for maple sirup, designated Light Amber, Medium Amber, and Dark Amber, were solutions of sugar caramel in glycerin standardized in terms of transmittance at 560 mμ. These solutions were not satisfactory because of instability of color and inconvenience of repeated preparation. Glass color standards were accordingly developed to match the chromaticities of fresh standard solutions in 31.5 mm depth. An improved color comparator was devised for use with the glass standards. The caramel-glycerin solutions and maple sirups were characterized spectrophotometrically and in terms of several one-dimensional color scales in use in the sugar industry. Complete specifications for the standard solutions and new glass standards are presented in the CIE system. Color tolerances were established in MacAdam units of chromaticity difference and a simple one-wavelength method of testing glasses for the production of duplicate standards was developed.

© 1956 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. H. Bryan, (1910) (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture).
  2. H. W. Wiley, (1905).
  3. R. T. Balch, Ind. Eng. Chem. 22, 255 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), third edition, pp. 1172–1173.
  5. “United States standards for table maple sirup” and “United States standards for maple sirup for reprocessing,”Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, issued February7, 1940.
  6. Brice, Turner, Southerland, and Bostwick, “Permanent glass color standards for maple sirup,” Bur. Agric. Ind. Chem. AIC-260 (February, 1950) (Eastern Regional Research Laboratory); also published in Canner 110, No. 6, 10 (1950).
  7. Deitz, Pennington, and Hoffman, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 365 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. L. Wolfrom, editor, Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1954), Vol. 9, pp. 247–284. “Color and turbidity of sugar products,” by R. W. Liggett and V. R. Deitz.
    [Crossref]
  9. H. J. Keegan and K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 770 (1944).
  10. Gibson, Walker, and Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933); D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry,” Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. 478 (March1, 1950).
    [Crossref]
  12. E. L. Sechrist, “The color grading of honey,” U. S. Dept. Agric., Dept. Circ. 364 (October, 1925).
  13. Porter, Buch, and Willits, Food Research 17, 475 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Hornig, editor, Principles of Sugar Technology (Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, 1953), Chap. 8, “Color and colored nonsugars,” by T. R. Gillett.
  15. Gillett, Meads, and Holven, Anal. Chem. 21, 1228 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. H. Peters and F. P. Phelps, Natl. Bur. Standards Technol. Papers 21, 261 (1927), No. 338.
  17. D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1952), p. 157.
  18. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 18 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  19. See reference 17, pp. 265–267, 352–357.

1952 (2)

Deitz, Pennington, and Hoffman, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 365 (1952).
[Crossref]

Porter, Buch, and Willits, Food Research 17, 475 (1952).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

Gillett, Meads, and Holven, Anal. Chem. 21, 1228 (1949).
[Crossref]

1944 (1)

H. J. Keegan and K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 770 (1944).

1943 (1)

1934 (1)

Gibson, Walker, and Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
[Crossref]

1933 (1)

1930 (1)

R. T. Balch, Ind. Eng. Chem. 22, 255 (1930).
[Crossref]

1927 (1)

H. H. Peters and F. P. Phelps, Natl. Bur. Standards Technol. Papers 21, 261 (1927), No. 338.

1925 (1)

E. L. Sechrist, “The color grading of honey,” U. S. Dept. Agric., Dept. Circ. 364 (October, 1925).

Balch, R. T.

R. T. Balch, Ind. Eng. Chem. 22, 255 (1930).
[Crossref]

Bostwick,

Brice, Turner, Southerland, and Bostwick, “Permanent glass color standards for maple sirup,” Bur. Agric. Ind. Chem. AIC-260 (February, 1950) (Eastern Regional Research Laboratory); also published in Canner 110, No. 6, 10 (1950).

Brice,

Brice, Turner, Southerland, and Bostwick, “Permanent glass color standards for maple sirup,” Bur. Agric. Ind. Chem. AIC-260 (February, 1950) (Eastern Regional Research Laboratory); also published in Canner 110, No. 6, 10 (1950).

Brown,

Gibson, Walker, and Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
[Crossref]

Browne, C. A.

C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), third edition, pp. 1172–1173.

Bryan, A. H.

A. H. Bryan, (1910) (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture).

Buch,

Porter, Buch, and Willits, Food Research 17, 475 (1952).
[Crossref]

Deitz,

Deitz, Pennington, and Hoffman, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 365 (1952).
[Crossref]

Gibson,

Gibson, Walker, and Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
[Crossref]

Gibson, K. S.

H. J. Keegan and K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 770 (1944).

Gillett,

Gillett, Meads, and Holven, Anal. Chem. 21, 1228 (1949).
[Crossref]

Gillett, T. R.

P. Hornig, editor, Principles of Sugar Technology (Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, 1953), Chap. 8, “Color and colored nonsugars,” by T. R. Gillett.

Hoffman,

Deitz, Pennington, and Hoffman, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 365 (1952).
[Crossref]

Holven,

Gillett, Meads, and Holven, Anal. Chem. 21, 1228 (1949).
[Crossref]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933); D. B. Judd, “Colorimetry,” Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. 478 (March1, 1950).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1952), p. 157.

Keegan, H. J.

H. J. Keegan and K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 770 (1944).

MacAdam, D. L.

Meads,

Gillett, Meads, and Holven, Anal. Chem. 21, 1228 (1949).
[Crossref]

Pennington,

Deitz, Pennington, and Hoffman, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 365 (1952).
[Crossref]

Peters, H. H.

H. H. Peters and F. P. Phelps, Natl. Bur. Standards Technol. Papers 21, 261 (1927), No. 338.

Phelps, F. P.

H. H. Peters and F. P. Phelps, Natl. Bur. Standards Technol. Papers 21, 261 (1927), No. 338.

Porter,

Porter, Buch, and Willits, Food Research 17, 475 (1952).
[Crossref]

Sechrist, E. L.

E. L. Sechrist, “The color grading of honey,” U. S. Dept. Agric., Dept. Circ. 364 (October, 1925).

Southerland,

Brice, Turner, Southerland, and Bostwick, “Permanent glass color standards for maple sirup,” Bur. Agric. Ind. Chem. AIC-260 (February, 1950) (Eastern Regional Research Laboratory); also published in Canner 110, No. 6, 10 (1950).

Turner,

Brice, Turner, Southerland, and Bostwick, “Permanent glass color standards for maple sirup,” Bur. Agric. Ind. Chem. AIC-260 (February, 1950) (Eastern Regional Research Laboratory); also published in Canner 110, No. 6, 10 (1950).

Walker,

Gibson, Walker, and Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
[Crossref]

Wiley, H. W.

H. W. Wiley, (1905).

Willits,

Porter, Buch, and Willits, Food Research 17, 475 (1952).
[Crossref]

Zerban, F. W.

C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), third edition, pp. 1172–1173.

Anal. Chem. (1)

Gillett, Meads, and Holven, Anal. Chem. 21, 1228 (1949).
[Crossref]

Food Research (1)

Porter, Buch, and Willits, Food Research 17, 475 (1952).
[Crossref]

Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

R. T. Balch, Ind. Eng. Chem. 22, 255 (1930).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (1)

Deitz, Pennington, and Hoffman, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 365 (1952).
[Crossref]

Natl. Bur. Standards Technol. Papers (1)

H. H. Peters and F. P. Phelps, Natl. Bur. Standards Technol. Papers 21, 261 (1927), No. 338.

U. S. Dept. Agric., Dept. Circ. 364 (1)

E. L. Sechrist, “The color grading of honey,” U. S. Dept. Agric., Dept. Circ. 364 (October, 1925).

Other (9)

D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1952), p. 157.

P. Hornig, editor, Principles of Sugar Technology (Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, 1953), Chap. 8, “Color and colored nonsugars,” by T. R. Gillett.

M. L. Wolfrom, editor, Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1954), Vol. 9, pp. 247–284. “Color and turbidity of sugar products,” by R. W. Liggett and V. R. Deitz.
[Crossref]

A. H. Bryan, (1910) (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture).

H. W. Wiley, (1905).

C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), third edition, pp. 1172–1173.

“United States standards for table maple sirup” and “United States standards for maple sirup for reprocessing,”Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, issued February7, 1940.

Brice, Turner, Southerland, and Bostwick, “Permanent glass color standards for maple sirup,” Bur. Agric. Ind. Chem. AIC-260 (February, 1950) (Eastern Regional Research Laboratory); also published in Canner 110, No. 6, 10 (1950).

See reference 17, pp. 265–267, 352–357.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorbancy, for thickness of 3.15 cm, versus wavelength both on logarithmic scales) for caramel-glycerin solutions I (concentration less than for Light Amber) and II (Light Amber) measured relative to glycerin; and for typical filtered maple sirups (curves 1–5) measured relative to colorless sucrose solutions of concentration 0.863 g/ml.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CIE chromaticity diagram, showing coordinates for Light Amber, Medium Amber, and Dark Amber glass color standards (+); for caramel-glycerin solutions in 3.15 cm thickness (○); and for typical maple sirups, 3.15 cm (●).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittancy curves for previous color standards for maple sirup, represented by caramel-glycerin solutions I, 3.15 cm, relative to glycerin; and transmittance curves of glass color standards selected to match the chromaticities of the solutions. Solutions – – –. Glasses—————

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Color comparator for grading maple sirup, showing bottles with clear blanks behind the glass standards, the three cloudy suspensions A, B, and C; and a sample of maple sirup to be classified.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table I Specifications for former caramel-glycerin color standards for maple sirup, and characterization of two sets of solutions I and II prepared for present investigation.

Tables Icon

Table II Attenuancy ratio and wavelength exponent (slope of logA* versus logλ curve) for caramel-glycerin solutions and maple sirups of different origins.

Tables Icon

Table III Chromaticity difference, in MacAdam units ΔS, between “standard” caramel-glycerin solutions I and II and master set of glass standards selected to match chromaticities of solutions I (3.15 cm of solution compensated by equal thickness of glycerin).

Tables Icon

Table IV Specifications and colorimetric analysis for master set of glass color standards for maple sirup. CIE data are based on 1931 standard observer and Illuminant C.

Tables Icon

Table V Spectral Transmittance of glass color standards for maple sirup.

Tables Icon

Table VI Color tolerances adopted for testing and producing duplicate glass standards, based on ΔS=±2.5 MacAdam units of chromaticity difference.