Abstract

Differential sensitivity for luminance differences existing in two spatially separated homogeneous fields was measured under three viewing conditions. In the first the comparison fields were separated by darkness; in the second the fields were joined by a transition area in which luminance increased linearly from the value presented in the darker field to that presented in the lighter field. A third condition controlled for the decrease in size of the fields which occurred with increasing separation. In all viewing conditions the darker field was presented to the left and to the right of the lighter field equally often; and the observer’s task was to detect the darker side of the display. Detection was significantly better with the gradient present than with the fields separated by darkness. The results are discussed in terms of the suggested ability of the visual system to utilize the distribution of light in an intervening gradient to emphasize the difference in the luminances of separated fields.

© 1956 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. R. Smith, J. Gen. Psychol. 14, 318 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. A. Bouman and G. van den Brink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 617 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Leibowitz, Mote, and Thurlow, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 453 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  4. Adams, Chambliss, and Riopelle, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 428 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Heinemann, J. Exptl. Psychol. 50, 89 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. L. Diamond, J. Exptl. Psychol. 50, 144 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. McCollough, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 141 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. H. Bartley, Psychol. Rev. 46, 337 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. L. Senders, Psychol. Bull. 45, 465 (1948).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. A. Korn and T. M. Korn, Electric analog computers (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1952), p. 258.
  11. D. M. Barger and R. G. Roush, “A velocity modulated raster display for brightness discrimination studies,” , U. S. Air Force Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (August, 1953).
  12. R. M. Hanes, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 438 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1947).
  14. G. A. Fry, Am. J. Optom. 25, 162 (1948).
    [Crossref]

1955 (4)

Adams, Chambliss, and Riopelle, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 428 (1955).
[Crossref]

G. Heinemann, J. Exptl. Psychol. 50, 89 (1955).
[Crossref]

A. L. Diamond, J. Exptl. Psychol. 50, 144 (1955).
[Crossref]

C. McCollough, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 141 (1955).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

Leibowitz, Mote, and Thurlow, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 453 (1953).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

1949 (1)

R. M. Hanes, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 438 (1949).
[Crossref]

1948 (2)

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Optom. 25, 162 (1948).
[Crossref]

V. L. Senders, Psychol. Bull. 45, 465 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1939 (1)

S. H. Bartley, Psychol. Rev. 46, 337 (1939).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

J. R. Smith, J. Gen. Psychol. 14, 318 (1936).
[Crossref]

Adams,

Adams, Chambliss, and Riopelle, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 428 (1955).
[Crossref]

Barger, D. M.

D. M. Barger and R. G. Roush, “A velocity modulated raster display for brightness discrimination studies,” , U. S. Air Force Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (August, 1953).

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, Psychol. Rev. 46, 337 (1939).
[Crossref]

Bouman, M. A.

Chambliss,

Adams, Chambliss, and Riopelle, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 428 (1955).
[Crossref]

Diamond, A. L.

A. L. Diamond, J. Exptl. Psychol. 50, 144 (1955).
[Crossref]

Finney, D. J.

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1947).

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Optom. 25, 162 (1948).
[Crossref]

Hanes, R. M.

R. M. Hanes, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 438 (1949).
[Crossref]

Heinemann, G.

G. Heinemann, J. Exptl. Psychol. 50, 89 (1955).
[Crossref]

Korn, G. A.

G. A. Korn and T. M. Korn, Electric analog computers (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1952), p. 258.

Korn, T. M.

G. A. Korn and T. M. Korn, Electric analog computers (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1952), p. 258.

Leibowitz,

Leibowitz, Mote, and Thurlow, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 453 (1953).
[Crossref]

McCollough, C.

C. McCollough, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 141 (1955).
[Crossref]

Mote,

Leibowitz, Mote, and Thurlow, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 453 (1953).
[Crossref]

Riopelle,

Adams, Chambliss, and Riopelle, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 428 (1955).
[Crossref]

Roush, R. G.

D. M. Barger and R. G. Roush, “A velocity modulated raster display for brightness discrimination studies,” , U. S. Air Force Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (August, 1953).

Senders, V. L.

V. L. Senders, Psychol. Bull. 45, 465 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, J. R.

J. R. Smith, J. Gen. Psychol. 14, 318 (1936).
[Crossref]

Thurlow,

Leibowitz, Mote, and Thurlow, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 453 (1953).
[Crossref]

van den Brink, G.

Am. J. Optom. (1)

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Optom. 25, 162 (1948).
[Crossref]

J. Exptl. Psychol. (6)

R. M. Hanes, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 438 (1949).
[Crossref]

Leibowitz, Mote, and Thurlow, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 453 (1953).
[Crossref]

Adams, Chambliss, and Riopelle, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 428 (1955).
[Crossref]

G. Heinemann, J. Exptl. Psychol. 50, 89 (1955).
[Crossref]

A. L. Diamond, J. Exptl. Psychol. 50, 144 (1955).
[Crossref]

C. McCollough, J. Exptl. Psychol. 49, 141 (1955).
[Crossref]

J. Gen. Psychol. (1)

J. R. Smith, J. Gen. Psychol. 14, 318 (1936).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Psychol. Bull. (1)

V. L. Senders, Psychol. Bull. 45, 465 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

S. H. Bartley, Psychol. Rev. 46, 337 (1939).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

G. A. Korn and T. M. Korn, Electric analog computers (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1952), p. 258.

D. M. Barger and R. G. Roush, “A velocity modulated raster display for brightness discrimination studies,” , U. S. Air Force Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (August, 1953).

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1947).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The three basic types of stimulus presentation for one width of separation of the comparison fields. The lowest curve illustrates how the luminance of the vertical sweep lines varied as a function of distance to the right and left of the center of the rectangular raster when the standard field, on the left, and the variable field, on the right, were joined by a linear gradient of luminance. The middle curve represents the luminance pattern seen when the gradient was occluded, and the top curve represents the pattern seen under the control condition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differential sensitivity for luminance differences at the four separations of the comparison fields. The solid line connects medians obtained when the comparison fields were separated by darkness; the dashed line connects medians obtained when the fields were joined by a linear gradient of luminance. Results of the control condition, described by the top curve in the previous figure, are indicated by the small squares. Vertical lines indicate one standard error above and below the median values. The dotted line connects points taken from Smith.1 The point for 1-min separation of the fields under the “Transition Absent” condition was not actually measured.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Luminance (in millilamberts) of the brighter side of the raster (variable field) at which observers could detect dark side (standard field) with an accuracy of 50% after correction for chance guessing.