Abstract

To what extent changes in convergence can contribute to stereoscopic acuity is again considered, using new data. Certain difficulties of obtaining the most desirable measurements of stereoscopic thresholds without and with eye movements are pointed out. Data obtained by the author and by others can be interpreted to show that, physiologically, convergence changes themselves do not contribute to stereoscopic acuity over that due to disparity between the images alone. In the tests where eye movements occur, lower apparent thresholds are found because retinal regions of higher visual acuity and higher stereoacuity come into play.

© 1956 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Franz Hillebrand, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorg. 7, 97–151 (1894).
  2. Jakob Bappert, Z. Psychol. 90, 167–203 (1922).
  3. F. B. Hofmann, “Physiologische Optik (Raumsinn),” In A. Graefe and T. Saemisch, Handbuch der gesamten Augenheilkunde (Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1925), second edition, Vol. 3, pp. 667.
  4. S. R. Irvine and E. J. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 15, 1037–1049 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  5. Sybil Cooper and P. M. Daniel, Brain.  72, 1–24 (March, 1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. R. Irvine, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 479–481 (1950).
  7. R. Grimm, Albrecht von Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 134, 359–363 (November, 1935).
  8. W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B64, 289–297 (1951).
  9. A. A. Rady and I. G. H. Ishak, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 530–534 (1955).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. N. Ogle, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B66, 513–515 (1953).
  11. K. N. Ogle, J. Exptl. Psychol. 44, 253–259 (October, 1952).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. N. Ogle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 906–913 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. N. Ogle, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 197–211 (August, 1954).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. C. Colenbrander, Ned. Tijdschr. Geneesk. 92(pt. 1), 809–812 (March13, 1948).
  15. L. Heine, Albrecht von Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 51, 146–173 (October, 1900).
  16. G. H. Bell and J. B. de V. Weir, Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. United Kingdom 67, 221–228 (1948).
  17. K. N. Ogle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 1023–1028 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  18. Elek Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 48, 436–441 (1952).
    [Crossref]

1955 (1)

1954 (1)

K. N. Ogle, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 197–211 (August, 1954).
[Crossref]

1953 (2)

K. N. Ogle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 906–913 (1953).
[Crossref]

K. N. Ogle, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B66, 513–515 (1953).

1952 (2)

K. N. Ogle, J. Exptl. Psychol. 44, 253–259 (October, 1952).
[Crossref]

Elek Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 48, 436–441 (1952).
[Crossref]

1951 (2)

K. N. Ogle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 1023–1028 (1951).
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B64, 289–297 (1951).

1950 (1)

S. R. Irvine, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 479–481 (1950).

1949 (1)

Sybil Cooper and P. M. Daniel, Brain.  72, 1–24 (March, 1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1948 (2)

M. C. Colenbrander, Ned. Tijdschr. Geneesk. 92(pt. 1), 809–812 (March13, 1948).

G. H. Bell and J. B. de V. Weir, Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. United Kingdom 67, 221–228 (1948).

1936 (1)

S. R. Irvine and E. J. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 15, 1037–1049 (1936).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

R. Grimm, Albrecht von Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 134, 359–363 (November, 1935).

1922 (1)

Jakob Bappert, Z. Psychol. 90, 167–203 (1922).

1900 (1)

L. Heine, Albrecht von Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 51, 146–173 (October, 1900).

1894 (1)

Franz Hillebrand, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorg. 7, 97–151 (1894).

Bappert, Jakob

Jakob Bappert, Z. Psychol. 90, 167–203 (1922).

Bell, G. H.

G. H. Bell and J. B. de V. Weir, Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. United Kingdom 67, 221–228 (1948).

Colenbrander, M. C.

M. C. Colenbrander, Ned. Tijdschr. Geneesk. 92(pt. 1), 809–812 (March13, 1948).

Cooper, Sybil

Sybil Cooper and P. M. Daniel, Brain.  72, 1–24 (March, 1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daniel, P. M.

Sybil Cooper and P. M. Daniel, Brain.  72, 1–24 (March, 1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grimm, R.

R. Grimm, Albrecht von Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 134, 359–363 (November, 1935).

Heine, L.

L. Heine, Albrecht von Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 51, 146–173 (October, 1900).

Hillebrand, Franz

Franz Hillebrand, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorg. 7, 97–151 (1894).

Hofmann, F. B.

F. B. Hofmann, “Physiologische Optik (Raumsinn),” In A. Graefe and T. Saemisch, Handbuch der gesamten Augenheilkunde (Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1925), second edition, Vol. 3, pp. 667.

Irvine, S. R.

S. R. Irvine, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 479–481 (1950).

S. R. Irvine and E. J. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 15, 1037–1049 (1936).
[Crossref]

Ishak, I. G. H.

Ludvigh, E. J.

S. R. Irvine and E. J. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 15, 1037–1049 (1936).
[Crossref]

Ludvigh, Elek

Elek Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 48, 436–441 (1952).
[Crossref]

Ogle, K. N.

K. N. Ogle, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 197–211 (August, 1954).
[Crossref]

K. N. Ogle, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B66, 513–515 (1953).

K. N. Ogle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 906–913 (1953).
[Crossref]

K. N. Ogle, J. Exptl. Psychol. 44, 253–259 (October, 1952).
[Crossref]

K. N. Ogle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 1023–1028 (1951).
[Crossref]

Rady, A. A.

Weir, J. B. de V.

G. H. Bell and J. B. de V. Weir, Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. United Kingdom 67, 221–228 (1948).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B64, 289–297 (1951).

Albrecht von Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

R. Grimm, Albrecht von Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 134, 359–363 (November, 1935).

L. Heine, Albrecht von Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 51, 146–173 (October, 1900).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. R. Irvine, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 479–481 (1950).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (3)

S. R. Irvine and E. J. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 15, 1037–1049 (1936).
[Crossref]

K. N. Ogle, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 197–211 (August, 1954).
[Crossref]

Elek Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 48, 436–441 (1952).
[Crossref]

Brain (1)

Sybil Cooper and P. M. Daniel, Brain.  72, 1–24 (March, 1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

K. N. Ogle, J. Exptl. Psychol. 44, 253–259 (October, 1952).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Ned. Tijdschr. Geneesk. (1)

M. C. Colenbrander, Ned. Tijdschr. Geneesk. 92(pt. 1), 809–812 (March13, 1948).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (2)

K. N. Ogle, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B66, 513–515 (1953).

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B64, 289–297 (1951).

Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. United Kingdom (1)

G. H. Bell and J. B. de V. Weir, Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. United Kingdom 67, 221–228 (1948).

Z. Psychol. (1)

Jakob Bappert, Z. Psychol. 90, 167–203 (1922).

Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorg. (1)

Franz Hillebrand, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorg. 7, 97–151 (1894).

Other (1)

F. B. Hofmann, “Physiologische Optik (Raumsinn),” In A. Graefe and T. Saemisch, Handbuch der gesamten Augenheilkunde (Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1925), second edition, Vol. 3, pp. 667.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of apparatus used to study relative stereoscopic thresholds with constant fixation and alternating fixation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results obtained by three subjects, showing change in standard deviations of settings in stereoscopic depth judgments with constant fixation and alternating fixation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between separation of test objects and stereoscopic thresholds for constant fixation on object A.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between separation of test objects and stereoscopic thresholds for alternating fixation from object A to object B.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The data of Rady and Ishak and of Wright replotted for comparison with the data of Fig. 2.