Abstract

Anomalous trichromatic color systems are examined within the framework of a three variable, bimodal opponent-colors theory. Specific types of anomaly are assumed to be related to specific changes in the normal photoreceptor distributions and to impairments in the normal chromatic response processes. The aberrant color equations, color sensations, and color discriminations of both protanomalous and deuteranomalous observers are shown to be meaningfully related to the postulated, systematically aberrant visual mechanisms.

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  2. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602 (1955).
  3. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 405 (1956).
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  5. E. Engelking, Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 196 (1925).
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  7. J. v. Kries, Nagel's Handbuch der Physiologie der Menschen (F. Vieweg and Son, Brunswick, 1905), Vol. 3.
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W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision and the Trichromatic Theory (Longmans Green and Company, London, 1913), Chap. XX.

W. Abney and W. Watson, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 89A, 232 (1913).

Chapanis, A.

A. Chapanis, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 24 (1944).

Corbett, H. V.

H. V. Corbett, J. Physiol. 88, 176 (1937).

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 24 (1953).

Dieterici, C.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1893).

Donders, F. C.

F. C. Donders, Arch. Physiol. 8, 518 (1884).

Edridge-Green, F. W.

F. W. Edridge-Green, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 86B, 164 (1913).

Engelking, E.

E. Engelking, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 78 (Supp.), 209 (1927).

H. Köllner and E. Engelking, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 502 (1929), p. 515.

E. Engelking, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 77, 61 (1926).

E. Engelking, Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 196 (1925).

Farnsworth, D.

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, "Comparative evaluation of anomaloscopes," Med. Research Lab. Rept. No. 190, XI, No. 7 (August 18, 1952).

Franceschetti, A.

A. Franceschetti, Sclhweiz. med. Wochschr. 58, 1273 (1928).

Francke, E.

E. Francke, Arch. Augenheilk. 82, 1 (1917).

Fry, G. A.

D. Volk and G. A. Fry, Am. J. Optom. 24, 99 (1947).

Goldmann, H.

H. Goldmann, Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 210, 70 (1925).

Göthlin, G. F.

G. F. Göthlin, Skand. Arch. Physiol. 43, 13 (1923).

Guttmann, A .

A . Guttmann, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 42, 24, 250 (1908); 43, 146, 199, 255 (1909).

Hailwood, J. G.

J. G. Hailwood and H. E. Roaf, J. Physiol. 91, 37 (1937).

Helmholtz, H. v.

H. v. Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (L. Voss, Hamburg and Leipzig, 1911), Vol. II, p. 346. See English edition (Optical Society of America, 1924), Vol. II, p. 409.

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss. N. F. 6, 142 (1885).

E. Hering, Arch. Ophthalmol. 36, 1 (1890).

E. Hering, Pflügers Arch, ges. Physiol. 57, 308 (1894).

Hess, C. v.

C. v. Hess, Arch. Augenheilk. 91, 133 (1922).

C. v. Hess, Ergeb. Physiol. 20, 1 (1922).

Hilbert, R.

R. Hilbert, Z. Bahn. Bahnkässenartze 8, 62 (1913).

Holzlöhner, E.

E. Holzlöhner and W. H. Stein, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 61, 209 (1930/31).

Hurvich, L. M.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 416 (1956).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 18, 33 (1955).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 405 (1956).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602 (1955).

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602 (1955).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 405 (1956).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 18, 33 (1955).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 416 (1956).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 827.

Katzin, D.

D. Katzin and E. Murray, Am. J. Psychol. 46, 611 (1934).

Koffka, K.

K. Koffka, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 43, 123 (1909).

Kohlrausch, A.

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), p. 1562.

Köllner, H.

H. Köllner, Arch. Augenheilk. 84, 177 (1919).

H. Köllner and E. Engelking, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 502 (1929), p. 515.

H. Köllner, Arch. Augenheilk. 78, 302 (1915).

H. Köllner, Die Störungen des Farbensinnes (S. Karger, Berlin, 1912), p. 141 ff.

König, A.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1893).

Kries, J. v.

J. v. Kries, Nagel's Handbuch der Physiologie der Menschen (F. Vieweg and Son, Brunswick, 1905), Vol. 3.

J. v. Kries, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 50, 137 (1919).

J. v. Kries, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 585 (1929), p. 593.

J. v. Kries, Z. Psychol. 19, 63 (1899).

Ladekarl, P. M.

P. M. Ladekarl, Acta Ophthalmol. 12 (Supplement III) (1934).

Levy, M.

M. Levy, "Über einen zweiten Typus des anomalen trichromatischen Farbensystems," dissertation, Freiburg (1903).

Lotze, A.

A. Lotze, "Untersuchungen eines anomalen trichromatischen Farbensystems," dissertation, Freiburg (1898).

Mathews, R. W.

G. L. Walls and R. W. Mathews, New Means of Studying Color Blindness and Normal Foveal Color Vision (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1952).

McKeon, W. M.

W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).

Müller, G. E.

G. E. Müller, Darstellung und Erklärung der verschiedenen Typen der Farbenblindheit (Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttigen, 1924), p. 180 ff.

Murray, E.

D. Katzin and E. Murray, Am. J. Psychol. 46, 611 (1934).

Nagel, W.

W. Nagel, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 42, 366 (1904).

W. Nagel, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 42, 65 (1908).

Nelson, J. H.

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).

Parsons, J. H.

J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1924), p. 229.

Pickford, R. W.

R. W. Pickford, Individual Differences in Colour Vision (Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd., London, 1951).

R. W. Pickford, Brit. J. Psychol. 45, 115 (1954).

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt, Documenta Ophthalmol. 3, 307 (1949).

Rautian, G. H.

G. H. Rautian, Doklady Akad. Nauk. S.S.S.R. 74, 1073 (1950).

Roaf, H. E.

J. G. Hailwood and H. E. Roaf, J. Physiol. 91, 37 (1937).

Rosencrantz, C.

C. Rosencrantz, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 5 (1927).

Rosmanit, J.

J. Rosmanit, Anleitung zur Feststellung der Farbentchtigkeil (Deuticke, Leipzig, 1914).

Sachs, E.

E. Sachs, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 243 (1928).

Samoljoff, A.

A. Samoljoff, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 367 (1907).

Schmidt, I.

I. Schmidt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 514 (1955). For additional references see reference 31, p. 517.

W. Trendelenburg and I. Schmidt, Sitzber. preuss. Akad. Wiss., Physik. Math. Kl., 13–81 (1935).

Schönewald, K.

K. Schönewald, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 63, 285 (1933).

Schubert, G.

G. Schubert, Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 220, 82 (1928).

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 41 (1950).

Stein, W. H.

E. Holzlöhner and W. H. Stein, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 61, 209 (1930/31).

Stilling, J.

J. Stilling, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 371 (1910).

Strutt, J. W.

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), Nature 25, 64 (1881).

Trendelenburg, W.

W. Trendelenburg and I. Schmidt, Sitzber. preuss. Akad. Wiss., Physik. Math. Kl., 13–81 (1935).

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 83, 721 (1929).

Tschermak, A.

A. Tschermak, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 295 (1929).

Volk, D.

D. Volk and G. A. Fry, Am. J. Optom. 24, 99 (1947).

von Planta, P.

P. von Planta, Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 253 (1928).

Waaler, G. H. M.

G. H. M. Waaler, Z. Indukt. Abstamm. Vererbungslehre 45, 279 (1927).

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 40, 18 (1955).

Walls, G. L.

G. L. Walls and R. W. Mathews, New Means of Studying Color Blindness and Normal Foveal Color Vision (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1952).

Watson, W.

W. Watson, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 88A, 404 (1913).

W. Abney and W. Watson, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 89A, 232 (1913).

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 113, 115 (1951).

Westphal, H.

H. Westphal, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 182 (1910).

Willis, M. P.

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, "Comparative evaluation of anomaloscopes," Med. Research Lab. Rept. No. 190, XI, No. 7 (August 18, 1952).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 319.

W. D. Wright, Appendix II, in F. H. G. Pitt, Med. Research Council (Brit.) Spec. Rep. Ser. No. 200 (1935).

W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).

Yustova, E. N.

E. N. Yustova, Doklady Akad. Nauk. S.S.S.R. 81, 1051 (1951).

Other (82)

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602 (1955).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 405 (1956).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 416 (1956).

E. Engelking, Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 196 (1925).

A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1893).

J. v. Kries, Nagel's Handbuch der Physiologie der Menschen (F. Vieweg and Son, Brunswick, 1905), Vol. 3.

W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision and the Trichromatic Theory (Longmans Green and Company, London, 1913), Chap. XX.

E. Engelking, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 78 (Supp.), 209 (1927).

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).

W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).

H. v. Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (L. Voss, Hamburg and Leipzig, 1911), Vol. II, p. 346. See English edition (Optical Society of America, 1924), Vol. II, p. 409.

J. v. Kries, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 585 (1929), p. 593.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 18, 33 (1955).

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 24 (1953).

Hubbard, Gregerman, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 36, 415 (1953).

G. Wald, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 40, 18 (1955).

D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 827.

W. Watson, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 88A, 404 (1913).

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), p. 1562.

E. Hering, Arch. Ophthalmol. 36, 1 (1890).

G. E. Müller, Darstellung und Erklärung der verschiedenen Typen der Farbenblindheit (Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttigen, 1924), p. 180 ff.

R. W. Pickford, Individual Differences in Colour Vision (Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd., London, 1951).

H. Köllner, Die Störungen des Farbensinnes (S. Karger, Berlin, 1912), p. 141 ff.

J. W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), Nature 25, 64 (1881).

W. Nagel, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 42, 65 (1908).

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, "Comparative evaluation of anomaloscopes," Med. Research Lab. Rept. No. 190, XI, No. 7 (August 18, 1952).

F. C. Donders, Arch. Physiol. 8, 518 (1884).

J. v. Kries, Z. Psychol. 19, 63 (1899).

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 83, 721 (1929).

I. Schmidt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 514 (1955). For additional references see reference 31, p. 517.

W. Nagel, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 42, 366 (1904).

A . Guttmann, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 42, 24, 250 (1908); 43, 146, 199, 255 (1909).

K. Schönewald, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 63, 285 (1933).

A. Lotze, "Untersuchungen eines anomalen trichromatischen Farbensystems," dissertation, Freiburg (1898).

M. Levy, "Über einen zweiten Typus des anomalen trichromatischen Farbensystems," dissertation, Freiburg (1903).

R. Hilbert, Z. Bahn. Bahnkässenartze 8, 62 (1913).

F. W. Edridge-Green, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 86B, 164 (1913).

C. v. Hess, Arch. Augenheilk. 91, 133 (1922).

J. Rosmanit, Anleitung zur Feststellung der Farbentchtigkeil (Deuticke, Leipzig, 1914).

K. Koffka, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 43, 123 (1909).

H. Köllner, Arch. Augenheilk. 78, 302 (1915).

A. Franceschetti, Sclhweiz. med. Wochschr. 58, 1273 (1928).

E. Engelking, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 77, 61 (1926).

H. Köllner and E. Engelking, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 502 (1929), p. 515.

W. Trendelenburg and I. Schmidt, Sitzber. preuss. Akad. Wiss., Physik. Math. Kl., 13–81 (1935).

Dr. Scheidemann, Z. Bahn. Bahnkässenartze 9, 8 (1914).

E. Francke, Arch. Augenheilk. 82, 1 (1917).

G. H. M. Waaler, Z. Indukt. Abstamm. Vererbungslehre 45, 279 (1927).

P. von Planta, Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 253 (1928).

E. Holzlöhner and W. H. Stein, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 61, 209 (1930/31).

D. Volk and G. A. Fry, Am. J. Optom. 24, 99 (1947).

L. L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 41 (1950).

J. Stilling, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 44, 371 (1910).

C. v. Hess, Ergeb. Physiol. 20, 1 (1922).

G. H. Rautian, Doklady Akad. Nauk. S.S.S.R. 74, 1073 (1950).

J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1924), p. 229.

G. L. Walls and R. W. Mathews, New Means of Studying Color Blindness and Normal Foveal Color Vision (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1952).

R. W. Pickford, Brit. J. Psychol. 45, 115 (1954).

E. Hering, Pflügers Arch, ges. Physiol. 57, 308 (1894).

W. Abney and W. Watson, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 89A, 232 (1913).

D. Katzin and E. Murray, Am. J. Psychol. 46, 611 (1934).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 319.

F. H. G. Pitt, Documenta Ophthalmol. 3, 307 (1949).

E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss. N. F. 6, 142 (1885).

J. v. Kries, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 50, 137 (1919).

E. N. Yustova, Doklady Akad. Nauk. S.S.S.R. 81, 1051 (1951).

A. Samoljoff, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 367 (1907).

A. Tschermak, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 295 (1929).

G. F. Göthlin, Skand. Arch. Physiol. 43, 13 (1923).

W. D. Wright, Appendix II, in F. H. G. Pitt, Med. Research Council (Brit.) Spec. Rep. Ser. No. 200 (1935).

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