Abstract

Safe driving or skiing in the “arctic whiteout” depends frequently upon the early detection of crevasses, fissures, ditches, or other sudden changes of elevation in the snow field. It has been believed that there might exist a certain colored glass for snow goggles which would provide a better perception of dangerous spots in snow. However, no definite answer was available as to what color the lenses ought to be.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate this problem from the theoretical point of view. It is found that compared with an essentially neutral glass none of the colored glasses ordinarily used in snow goggles improves the ability of the eye to detect sudden changes of elevation in a snow field. Even red glasses of extreme purity—which according to the present theory would be expected to give a maximum of improvement, are not significantly more effective than neutral glasses.

© 1956 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Farnsworth, (Medical Research Laboratory, U. S. Naval Submarine Base, New London, 1948).
  2. D. Farnsworth, Sight-Saving Rev. 20, 81 (1950).
  3. F. Moss, (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, 1951).
  4. A. H. Taylor and G. P. Kerr, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 3 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. L. Krinov, “Spectral reflectance properties of natural formations.” Izdaltel’stvo Akad. Nauk. U.S.S.R. (1947). Available in English as NRC-Technical Translation TT-439, Ottawa, 1953.
  6. Z. Yamauti, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 561 (1926).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Buckley, Comm. Int. l’Éclairage Proc., 888 (1928).
  8. P. Moon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 223 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Moon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 301 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W. E. K. Middleton, Vision through the Atmosphere (The University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952), p. 90, Fig. 5.4.
  12. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, Illum. Eng. 37, 707 (1942); see also reference 11, pp. 105–107.

1950 (1)

D. Farnsworth, Sight-Saving Rev. 20, 81 (1950).

1947 (1)

E. L. Krinov, “Spectral reflectance properties of natural formations.” Izdaltel’stvo Akad. Nauk. U.S.S.R. (1947). Available in English as NRC-Technical Translation TT-439, Ottawa, 1953.

1946 (1)

1942 (1)

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, Illum. Eng. 37, 707 (1942); see also reference 11, pp. 105–107.

1941 (3)

1928 (1)

H. Buckley, Comm. Int. l’Éclairage Proc., 888 (1928).

1926 (1)

Blackwell, H. R.

Buckley, H.

H. Buckley, Comm. Int. l’Éclairage Proc., 888 (1928).

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth, Sight-Saving Rev. 20, 81 (1950).

D. Farnsworth, (Medical Research Laboratory, U. S. Naval Submarine Base, New London, 1948).

Kerr, G. P.

Krinov, E. L.

E. L. Krinov, “Spectral reflectance properties of natural formations.” Izdaltel’stvo Akad. Nauk. U.S.S.R. (1947). Available in English as NRC-Technical Translation TT-439, Ottawa, 1953.

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, Vision through the Atmosphere (The University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952), p. 90, Fig. 5.4.

Moon, P.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, Illum. Eng. 37, 707 (1942); see also reference 11, pp. 105–107.

P. Moon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 223 (1941).
[Crossref]

P. Moon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 301 (1941).
[Crossref]

Moss, F.

F. Moss, (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, 1951).

Spencer, D. E.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, Illum. Eng. 37, 707 (1942); see also reference 11, pp. 105–107.

Taylor, A. H.

Yamauti, Z.

Comm. Int. l’Éclairage Proc. (1)

H. Buckley, Comm. Int. l’Éclairage Proc., 888 (1928).

Illum. Eng. (1)

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, Illum. Eng. 37, 707 (1942); see also reference 11, pp. 105–107.

Izdaltel’stvo Akad. Nauk. U.S.S.R. (1)

E. L. Krinov, “Spectral reflectance properties of natural formations.” Izdaltel’stvo Akad. Nauk. U.S.S.R. (1947). Available in English as NRC-Technical Translation TT-439, Ottawa, 1953.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Sight-Saving Rev. (1)

D. Farnsworth, Sight-Saving Rev. 20, 81 (1950).

Other (3)

F. Moss, (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, 1951).

D. Farnsworth, (Medical Research Laboratory, U. S. Naval Submarine Base, New London, 1948).

W. E. K. Middleton, Vision through the Atmosphere (The University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952), p. 90, Fig. 5.4.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross sections of four types of sudden changes of elevation in a snow field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral reflectance of snow and luminance ratios as functions of wavelengths. The curves indicated by 0, 11, 12, 13, 2, 3, 41, 42 represent ρ(λ), r11(λ), etc.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral transmission curves of absorbing lenses for snow goggles. Curves 1, 2, 3 represent “Neutral N15,” “Rose Smoke,” and “Corning No. 3482,” respectively. Curve 4 is for an ideal red glass.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Analytical analysis of curves ρ(λ) and r3(λ) of Fig. 2 for different kind of absorbing lenses.

Equations (11)

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r ( s ) = 1 / A 0 [ A 1 cosh ( k s ) + A 2 sinh ( k s ) ] ,
A 0 = 2 cosh ( k l ) + k [ 1 + ( 1 + ρ ) sinh ( k l ) ] A 1 = ρ [ ( 1 + ρ ) cosh ( k l ) + k sinh ( k l ) ] A 2 = - ρ [ ( 1 + ρ ) sinh ( k l ) + k cosh ( k l ) ] .
k = ( 1 - ρ ) 1 2 .
r ( s ) = ( 1 - k ) exp ( - k s ) .
B p 0 = 0.5 ρ B 0
B h 0 = 0.5 ρ B 0 ( 1 + cos ϕ )
B h 0 = ρ B 0
B p = 0.5 B 0 ρ ( 1 + ρ ) .
P h = 0.5 ρ B 0 [ 0.5 ρ ( 1 + ρ ) ( 1 - cos ϕ ) + ( 1 + cos ϕ ) ] ,
r ( ϕ ) = 0.5 ρ [ 0.5 ρ ( 1 + ρ ) ( 1 - cos ϕ ) + ( 1 + cos ϕ ) ] .
r = ρ sin 2 α / ( 1 - ρ cos 2 α ) ,