Abstract

A quantitative model for an opponent-colors theory of vision is presented that is based on the CIE color mixture data for the standard observer. The model is used to account for spectral brightness, saturation, and hue and some of their associated psychophysical functions in both normal and dichromatic vision. Special attention is given to an account of the Bezold-Brücke hue shift, and to changes in saturation and wavelength discrimination with changes in stimulus luminance.

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  1. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).
  2. D. B. Judd, IIandbook of Experimenlal Psychology (edited by S. S. Stevens) (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.
  3. A. v. Tschermak, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 295 (1929), p.342 ff.
  4. E. Hering, Grundziige der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920), p. 112 ff.
  5. E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss, Wien. Math.-naturw, Klasse, 134, 471 (1925).
  6. R. Hiecke, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 111 (1927).
  7. A. Brückner, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 322 (1927), p. 340 ff.
  8. Reference 2, p. 831.
  9. J. F. Schouten, Proc. Acad. Sci. (Amsterdam) 38, 590 (1935).
  10. J. Guild, in Joint Discussion on Vision (The Physical Society, London, 1932), pp. 1–26.
  11. M. H. Pirenne, Vision and the Eye (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1948), pp. 159–160.
  12. H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 24 (1953).
  13. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).
  14. These responses may be related to different physiological structures or, more likely, they may be correlates of different physiological states within the same structural elements.
  15. S. A. Talbot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 918 (1951).
  16. W. A. H. Rushton and R. D. Cohen, Nature 173, 301 (1954).
  17. G. Wald, Science 119, 887 (1954).
  18. H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 40, 1 (1939).
  19. L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 957 (1916).
  20. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 552 (1953).
  21. For a list of references see: L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 490–492 (1953).
  22. W. J. Crozier, J, Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).
  23. W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 207–208 (1935).
  24. W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 331 (1937).
  25. D. M. Purdy, "Chroma as a function of retinal illumination," dissertation, Harvard University, 1–190 (1929), Table VI.
  26. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).
  27. E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
  28. H. Hartridge, Nature 155, 657 (1945).
  29. D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U.S.) 42, 13 (1949).
  30. D. M. Purdy, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 313 (1937).
  31. Reference 2, p. 855.
  32. A. König and C. Dieterici, Ann. Phys. Chem. 22, 579 (1884).
  33. L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1930), Vol. II, pp. 142, 144.
  34. E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss. N. F. 1, 95, 96 (1880).
  35. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 83 (1936).
  36. R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 113, 115 (1951).
  37. A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (The Technology Press, Cambridge, 1936), p. 31.
  38. E. Hering, Arch. Ophthal. 36, 1 (1890).
  39. D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 41, 247 (1948).
  40. D. B. Judd, Documenta Ophthal. 3, 251 (1949).
  41. This assumption is not inconsistent with the established fact that rod pigments peak at different wavelengths for different lower organisms and even undergo a shift during development in some instances [G. Wald, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 22, 497 (1953)].
  42. A. Chapanis, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 24 (1944).
  43. F. H. G. Pitt, Med. Research Council (Brit.) Spec. Rep. Ser. No. 200 (1935).
  44. P. M. Ladekarl, Acta Ophthal. 12 (Supplement III) (1934).
  45. E. Brodhun, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 3, 97 (1892).
  46. W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 509 (1952).
  47. The measured luminosity function for one tritanopic observer reported by Judd, Plaza, and Farnsworth did show a peak strongly displaced toward the long wavelengths, but they attribute this exceptional case to abnormally heavy macular pigmentation. [Judd, Plaza, and Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 833 (1950).]
  48. G. E. Müller, Darstellung und Erklärung der verschiedenen Typen der Farbenblindlheit (Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1924), p. 72 ff.
  49. Fischer, Bouman, and ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthal. 5–6, 73 (1951).
  50. S. Hecht, Documenta Ophthal. 3, 289 (1949).
  51. C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 120, 780 (A) (1954).

Brodhun, E.

E. Brodhun, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 3, 97 (1892).

Brückner, A.

A. Brückner, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 322 (1927), p. 340 ff.

Chapanis, A.

A. Chapanis, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 24 (1944).

Cohen, R. D.

W. A. H. Rushton and R. D. Cohen, Nature 173, 301 (1954).

Crozier, W. J.

W. J. Crozier, J, Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 24 (1953).

Dieterici, C.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Ann. Phys. Chem. 22, 579 (1884).

Doesschate, ten

Fischer, Bouman, and ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthal. 5–6, 73 (1951).

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 120, 780 (A) (1954).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

Guild, J.

J. Guild, in Joint Discussion on Vision (The Physical Society, London, 1932), pp. 1–26.

Hardy, A. C.

A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (The Technology Press, Cambridge, 1936), p. 31.

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Nature 155, 657 (1945).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 83 (1936).

S. Hecht, Documenta Ophthal. 3, 289 (1949).

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss. N. F. 1, 95, 96 (1880).

E. Hering, Arch. Ophthal. 36, 1 (1890).

E. Hering, Grundziige der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920), p. 112 ff.

Hiecke, R.

R. Hiecke, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 111 (1927).

Hsia, Y.

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 120, 780 (A) (1954).

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).

For a list of references see: L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 490–492 (1953).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 552 (1953).

Jameson, D.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 552 (1953).

For a list of references see: L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 490–492 (1953).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U.S.) 42, 13 (1949).

D. B. Judd, Documenta Ophthal. 3, 251 (1949).

D. B. Judd, IIandbook of Experimenlal Psychology (edited by S. S. Stevens) (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.

D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 41, 247 (1948).

König, A.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Ann. Phys. Chem. 22, 579 (1884).

Ladekarl, P. M.

P. M. Ladekarl, Acta Ophthal. 12 (Supplement III) (1934).

Müller, G. E.

G. E. Müller, Darstellung und Erklärung der verschiedenen Typen der Farbenblindlheit (Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1924), p. 72 ff.

Piéron, H.

H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 40, 1 (1939).

Pirenne, M. H.

M. H. Pirenne, Vision and the Eye (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1948), pp. 159–160.

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt, Med. Research Council (Brit.) Spec. Rep. Ser. No. 200 (1935).

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 331 (1937).

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 207–208 (1935).

Purdy, D. M.

D. M. Purdy, "Chroma as a function of retinal illumination," dissertation, Harvard University, 1–190 (1929), Table VI.

D. M. Purdy, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 313 (1937).

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton and R. D. Cohen, Nature 173, 301 (1954).

Schouten, J. F.

J. F. Schouten, Proc. Acad. Sci. (Amsterdam) 38, 590 (1935).

Schrödinger, E.

E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss, Wien. Math.-naturw, Klasse, 134, 471 (1925).

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 83 (1936).

Talbot, S. A.

S. A. Talbot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 918 (1951).

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1930), Vol. II, pp. 142, 144.

L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 957 (1916).

Tschermak, A. v.

A. v. Tschermak, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 295 (1929), p.342 ff.

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science 119, 887 (1954).

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 113, 115 (1951).

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).

Wright, W. D.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 207–208 (1935).

W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 509 (1952).

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 331 (1937).

Other

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).

D. B. Judd, IIandbook of Experimenlal Psychology (edited by S. S. Stevens) (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.

A. v. Tschermak, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 295 (1929), p.342 ff.

E. Hering, Grundziige der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920), p. 112 ff.

E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss, Wien. Math.-naturw, Klasse, 134, 471 (1925).

R. Hiecke, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 111 (1927).

A. Brückner, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 322 (1927), p. 340 ff.

Reference 2, p. 831.

J. F. Schouten, Proc. Acad. Sci. (Amsterdam) 38, 590 (1935).

J. Guild, in Joint Discussion on Vision (The Physical Society, London, 1932), pp. 1–26.

M. H. Pirenne, Vision and the Eye (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1948), pp. 159–160.

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 24 (1953).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

These responses may be related to different physiological structures or, more likely, they may be correlates of different physiological states within the same structural elements.

S. A. Talbot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 918 (1951).

W. A. H. Rushton and R. D. Cohen, Nature 173, 301 (1954).

G. Wald, Science 119, 887 (1954).

H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 40, 1 (1939).

L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 957 (1916).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 552 (1953).

For a list of references see: L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 490–492 (1953).

W. J. Crozier, J, Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 207–208 (1935).

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 331 (1937).

D. M. Purdy, "Chroma as a function of retinal illumination," dissertation, Harvard University, 1–190 (1929), Table VI.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).

H. Hartridge, Nature 155, 657 (1945).

D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U.S.) 42, 13 (1949).

D. M. Purdy, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 313 (1937).

Reference 2, p. 855.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Ann. Phys. Chem. 22, 579 (1884).

L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1930), Vol. II, pp. 142, 144.

E. Hering, Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss. N. F. 1, 95, 96 (1880).

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 83 (1936).

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 113, 115 (1951).

A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (The Technology Press, Cambridge, 1936), p. 31.

E. Hering, Arch. Ophthal. 36, 1 (1890).

D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 41, 247 (1948).

D. B. Judd, Documenta Ophthal. 3, 251 (1949).

This assumption is not inconsistent with the established fact that rod pigments peak at different wavelengths for different lower organisms and even undergo a shift during development in some instances [G. Wald, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 22, 497 (1953)].

A. Chapanis, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 24 (1944).

F. H. G. Pitt, Med. Research Council (Brit.) Spec. Rep. Ser. No. 200 (1935).

P. M. Ladekarl, Acta Ophthal. 12 (Supplement III) (1934).

E. Brodhun, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 3, 97 (1892).

W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 509 (1952).

The measured luminosity function for one tritanopic observer reported by Judd, Plaza, and Farnsworth did show a peak strongly displaced toward the long wavelengths, but they attribute this exceptional case to abnormally heavy macular pigmentation. [Judd, Plaza, and Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 833 (1950).]

G. E. Müller, Darstellung und Erklärung der verschiedenen Typen der Farbenblindlheit (Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1924), p. 72 ff.

Fischer, Bouman, and ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthal. 5–6, 73 (1951).

S. Hecht, Documenta Ophthal. 3, 289 (1949).

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 120, 780 (A) (1954).

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