Abstract

Saturation discrimination is assumed to be dependent on the ratio of chromatic to achromatic components in the sensory response to a given wavelength. The usual methods of measurement do not, however, permit independent control of the chromatic and achromatic variables. On the basis of an opponent-colors theory of vision, a method is described for measuring directly and separately the spectral distributions of the chromatic components. A series of experiments is reported in which this method was used to obtain measures of the paired chromatic responses associated with the four primary spectral hues. Results are reported for two observers, 1° foveal test field, for an equal brightness spectrum (10 mL), and a neutral state of adaptation (10 mL). The measured chromatic responses, together with achromatic (luminosity) functions measured earlier for the same observers, are used to predict the form of the spectral saturation discrimination function.

© 1955 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1930), Vol. II, p. 147.
  2. J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1924), pp. 31–32.
  3. D. M. Purdy, “Chroma as a function of retinal illumination,” dissertation, Harvard University, 1–190 (1929).
  4. I. G. Priest and F. G. Brickwedde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 133 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  5. Martin, Warburton, and Morgan, Med. Research Council (Brit.), , (1933).
  6. W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 329 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 332 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. F. Grether, J. Exptl. Psychol. 28, 419 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Chapanis, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 24 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. A. Jones and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 25 (1926).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (N. Y.) 11, 947 (1916).
  12. R. H. Sinden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1123 (1923).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. M. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).
  14. W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 205 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 165.
  16. D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 4, 515 (1930).
  17. S. Hecht, A Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (edited by C. Murchison) (Clark University Press, Massachusetts, 1934), pp. 704–828.
  18. D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 42, 1 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  19. Reference 17, p. 792.
  20. E. Hering, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-naturw. Klasse. 70, 169 (1875).
  21. A. Brückner, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 322 (1927).
  22. Two other experiments of a similar nature have been reported [L. Goldytsch, Z. Biol. 67, 35 (1917); E. Brücke and N. Inouye, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 141, 573 (1911)]. In one, only a single chromatic response function (yellow) was measured, in the other, chromatic valence curves were determined for a color-blind observer.
    [Crossref]
  23. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  25. The phrase “chromatic valences” as used here is not to be confused with Hering’s “optical valences” which refer to stimulus properties or capacities relative to a single, fixed state of adaptation (reference 26). Nor should the phrase “chromatic response” be confused with the so-called “fundamental response curves” or receptor sensitivity curves.
  26. E. Hering, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 57, 308 (1894).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. Hering, Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920), p. 288 ff.
  28. Complete numerical data with a sigma values are available from the authors upon request.
  29. A. v. Tschermak-Seysenegg, Naturwiss. 18, 589 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  30. E. Hering and Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss. N.F. 1, 81 (1880).
  31. Reference 15, pp. 165–166.
  32. L. C. Thomson, Ophthal. Lit. 6, 14 (1952).
  33. H. v. Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (L. Voss, Hamburg and Leipzig, 1896), second edition, p. 456.
  34. Reference 30, p. 77.

1953 (1)

1952 (1)

L. C. Thomson, Ophthal. Lit. 6, 14 (1952).

1951 (1)

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 42, 1 (1949).
[Crossref]

1944 (1)

A. Chapanis, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 24 (1944).
[Crossref]

1941 (1)

W. F. Grether, J. Exptl. Psychol. 28, 419 (1941).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

1937 (2)

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 329 (1937).
[Crossref]

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 332 (1937).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 205 (1935).
[Crossref]

1931 (1)

D. M. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).

1930 (2)

A. v. Tschermak-Seysenegg, Naturwiss. 18, 589 (1930).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 4, 515 (1930).

1927 (1)

A. Brückner, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 322 (1927).

1926 (1)

1923 (1)

1917 (1)

Two other experiments of a similar nature have been reported [L. Goldytsch, Z. Biol. 67, 35 (1917); E. Brücke and N. Inouye, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 141, 573 (1911)]. In one, only a single chromatic response function (yellow) was measured, in the other, chromatic valence curves were determined for a color-blind observer.
[Crossref]

1916 (1)

L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (N. Y.) 11, 947 (1916).

1894 (1)

E. Hering, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 57, 308 (1894).
[Crossref]

1880 (1)

E. Hering and Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss. N.F. 1, 81 (1880).

1875 (1)

E. Hering, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-naturw. Klasse. 70, 169 (1875).

Brickwedde, F. G.

Brückner, A.

A. Brückner, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 322 (1927).

Chapanis, A.

A. Chapanis, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 24 (1944).
[Crossref]

Goldytsch, L.

Two other experiments of a similar nature have been reported [L. Goldytsch, Z. Biol. 67, 35 (1917); E. Brücke and N. Inouye, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 141, 573 (1911)]. In one, only a single chromatic response function (yellow) was measured, in the other, chromatic valence curves were determined for a color-blind observer.
[Crossref]

Grether, W. F.

W. F. Grether, J. Exptl. Psychol. 28, 419 (1941).
[Crossref]

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, A Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (edited by C. Murchison) (Clark University Press, Massachusetts, 1934), pp. 704–828.

Helmholtz, H. v.

H. v. Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (L. Voss, Hamburg and Leipzig, 1896), second edition, p. 456.

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 57, 308 (1894).
[Crossref]

E. Hering and Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss. N.F. 1, 81 (1880).

E. Hering, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-naturw. Klasse. 70, 169 (1875).

E. Hering, Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920), p. 288 ff.

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
[Crossref]

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
[Crossref]

Jones, L. A.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 42, 1 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 4, 515 (1930).

Lotos,

E. Hering and Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss. N.F. 1, 81 (1880).

Lowry, E. M.

Martin,

Martin, Warburton, and Morgan, Med. Research Council (Brit.), , (1933).

Morgan,

Martin, Warburton, and Morgan, Med. Research Council (Brit.), , (1933).

Nelson, J. H.

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 332 (1937).
[Crossref]

Parsons, J. H.

J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1924), pp. 31–32.

Pitt, F. H. G.

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 329 (1937).
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 205 (1935).
[Crossref]

Priest, I. G.

Purdy, D. M.

D. M. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).

D. M. Purdy, “Chroma as a function of retinal illumination,” dissertation, Harvard University, 1–190 (1929).

Sinden, R. H.

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson, Ophthal. Lit. 6, 14 (1952).

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (N. Y.) 11, 947 (1916).

L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1930), Vol. II, p. 147.

Tschermak-Seysenegg, A. v.

A. v. Tschermak-Seysenegg, Naturwiss. 18, 589 (1930).
[Crossref]

Warburton,

Martin, Warburton, and Morgan, Med. Research Council (Brit.), , (1933).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 329 (1937).
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 205 (1935).
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 165.

Brit. J. Psychol. (1)

D. M. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).

J. Exptl. Psychol. (3)

W. F. Grether, J. Exptl. Psychol. 28, 419 (1941).
[Crossref]

A. Chapanis, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 24 (1944).
[Crossref]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Jahrb. Naturwiss. N.F. (1)

E. Hering and Lotos, Jahrb. Naturwiss. N.F. 1, 81 (1880).

Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) (2)

D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 4, 515 (1930).

D. B. Judd, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 42, 1 (1949).
[Crossref]

Naturwiss. (1)

A. v. Tschermak-Seysenegg, Naturwiss. 18, 589 (1930).
[Crossref]

Ophthal. Lit. (1)

L. C. Thomson, Ophthal. Lit. 6, 14 (1952).

Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. (1)

E. Hering, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 57, 308 (1894).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (3)

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 205 (1935).
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 329 (1937).
[Crossref]

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 332 (1937).
[Crossref]

Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-naturw. Klasse. (1)

E. Hering, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-naturw. Klasse. 70, 169 (1875).

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (N. Y.) (1)

L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (N. Y.) 11, 947 (1916).

Z. Biol. (1)

Two other experiments of a similar nature have been reported [L. Goldytsch, Z. Biol. 67, 35 (1917); E. Brücke and N. Inouye, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 141, 573 (1911)]. In one, only a single chromatic response function (yellow) was measured, in the other, chromatic valence curves were determined for a color-blind observer.
[Crossref]

Z. Sinnesphysiol. (1)

A. Brückner, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 322 (1927).

Other (13)

E. Hering, Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920), p. 288 ff.

Complete numerical data with a sigma values are available from the authors upon request.

The phrase “chromatic valences” as used here is not to be confused with Hering’s “optical valences” which refer to stimulus properties or capacities relative to a single, fixed state of adaptation (reference 26). Nor should the phrase “chromatic response” be confused with the so-called “fundamental response curves” or receptor sensitivity curves.

H. v. Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (L. Voss, Hamburg and Leipzig, 1896), second edition, p. 456.

Reference 30, p. 77.

Reference 15, pp. 165–166.

Martin, Warburton, and Morgan, Med. Research Council (Brit.), , (1933).

L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1930), Vol. II, p. 147.

J. H. Parsons, An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1924), pp. 31–32.

D. M. Purdy, “Chroma as a function of retinal illumination,” dissertation, Harvard University, 1–190 (1929).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 165.

Reference 17, p. 792.

S. Hecht, A Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (edited by C. Murchison) (Clark University Press, Massachusetts, 1934), pp. 704–828.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log chromatic response functions. Observer H.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log chromatic response functions. Observer J.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chromatic response functions. Observer H.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chromatic response functions. Observer J.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral saturation functions (see text).