Abstract

The report concerns a discussion of some methodological and statistical problems in testing color vision with the Nagel anomaloscope and an evaluation of records compiled during a period of four and a half years’ research work at the U. S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas. Following topics are dealt with: elimination of training effects and determination of the total number of readings required to detect specified minimum practical differences between individuals; application and frequency distribution of the anomalous quotient; determination of the normal matching range of mixtures and of comparison yellow; and test-retest reliability of the Nagel anomaloscope.

© 1955 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Mbl. Augenhk. 83, 721 (1929).
  2. Vierling, Z. Bahnaerzte No.  9 (1928).
  3. I am indebted to Mr. A. W. Kimball, Jr., for performing this analysis and to Mr. M. Bryan Danford for giving me valuable advice, both from Department of Biometrics, U. S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Air Force Base, Randolph Field, Texas.
  4. A. Schuster, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 48, 140 (1890).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. A. Houston, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A102, 353 (1923).
  6. J. G. Hailwood and H. E. Roaf, J. Physiol. (London) 91, 36 (1937–1938).
  7. J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Mbl. Augenhk. 102, 769 (1939).
  9. A. Dresler, Licht 10, 79 (1940).
  10. M. Richter, Z. wiss. Phot. 43, 209 (1949).
  11. H. W. Rose and I. Schmidt, Proj. No. 21-02-040, , U. S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, March1950.
  12. W. Trendelenburg and I. Schmidt, Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys. Math. Kl.1935,  II, 71 p.
  13. G. W. Keyser, The Place of the Anomalous Quotient (A.q.) by Color Vision Examination and by Evaluation of Color Ability. (A. W. Broggers, A/S/Oslo, 1950), English translation.
  14. L. L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 41 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. Engelking. XIV Concilium Ophthalmologicum Hollandia IV, 4, p. 55, Amsterdam, 1929.
  16. E. E. Engelking. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 90, 9 (1933).
  17. I. Schmidt. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 94, 433 (1935).
  18. G. Aszél, Scemészet Ophthalm. 88, 194 (1951).
  19. N. N. Kolycev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 30, 13 (1951).
  20. A. Baranovsky, of the Public Health Department of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, gave helpful advice with this analysis.

1951 (2)

G. Aszél, Scemészet Ophthalm. 88, 194 (1951).

N. N. Kolycev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 30, 13 (1951).

1950 (1)

1949 (1)

M. Richter, Z. wiss. Phot. 43, 209 (1949).

1940 (1)

A. Dresler, Licht 10, 79 (1940).

1939 (1)

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Mbl. Augenhk. 102, 769 (1939).

1938 (1)

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
[Crossref]

1935 (2)

W. Trendelenburg and I. Schmidt, Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys. Math. Kl.1935,  II, 71 p.

I. Schmidt. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 94, 433 (1935).

1933 (1)

E. E. Engelking. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 90, 9 (1933).

1929 (1)

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Mbl. Augenhk. 83, 721 (1929).

1928 (1)

Vierling, Z. Bahnaerzte No.  9 (1928).

1923 (1)

R. A. Houston, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A102, 353 (1923).

1890 (1)

A. Schuster, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 48, 140 (1890).
[Crossref]

Aszél, G.

G. Aszél, Scemészet Ophthalm. 88, 194 (1951).

Baranovsky, A.

A. Baranovsky, of the Public Health Department of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, gave helpful advice with this analysis.

Dresler, A.

A. Dresler, Licht 10, 79 (1940).

Engelking, E.

E. Engelking. XIV Concilium Ophthalmologicum Hollandia IV, 4, p. 55, Amsterdam, 1929.

Engelking, E. E.

E. E. Engelking. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 90, 9 (1933).

Hailwood, J. G.

J. G. Hailwood and H. E. Roaf, J. Physiol. (London) 91, 36 (1937–1938).

Houston, R. A.

R. A. Houston, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A102, 353 (1923).

Keyser, G. W.

G. W. Keyser, The Place of the Anomalous Quotient (A.q.) by Color Vision Examination and by Evaluation of Color Ability. (A. W. Broggers, A/S/Oslo, 1950), English translation.

Kolycev, N. N.

N. N. Kolycev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 30, 13 (1951).

Nelson, J. H.

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
[Crossref]

Richter, M.

M. Richter, Z. wiss. Phot. 43, 209 (1949).

Roaf, H. E.

J. G. Hailwood and H. E. Roaf, J. Physiol. (London) 91, 36 (1937–1938).

Rose, H. W.

H. W. Rose and I. Schmidt, Proj. No. 21-02-040, , U. S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, March1950.

Schmidt, I.

I. Schmidt. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 94, 433 (1935).

W. Trendelenburg and I. Schmidt, Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys. Math. Kl.1935,  II, 71 p.

H. W. Rose and I. Schmidt, Proj. No. 21-02-040, , U. S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, March1950.

Schuster, A.

A. Schuster, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 48, 140 (1890).
[Crossref]

Sloan, L. L.

Trendelenburg, W.

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Mbl. Augenhk. 102, 769 (1939).

W. Trendelenburg and I. Schmidt, Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys. Math. Kl.1935,  II, 71 p.

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Mbl. Augenhk. 83, 721 (1929).

Vierling,

Vierling, Z. Bahnaerzte No.  9 (1928).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

J. G. Hailwood and H. E. Roaf, J. Physiol. (London) 91, 36 (1937–1938).

Klin. Mbl. Augenhk. (2)

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Mbl. Augenhk. 83, 721 (1929).

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Mbl. Augenhk. 102, 769 (1939).

Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. (2)

E. E. Engelking. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 90, 9 (1933).

I. Schmidt. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 94, 433 (1935).

Licht (1)

A. Dresler, Licht 10, 79 (1940).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (2)

A. Schuster, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 48, 140 (1890).
[Crossref]

R. A. Houston, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A102, 353 (1923).

Scemészet Ophthalm. (1)

G. Aszél, Scemészet Ophthalm. 88, 194 (1951).

Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys. Math. Kl. (1)

W. Trendelenburg and I. Schmidt, Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys. Math. Kl.1935,  II, 71 p.

Vestnik Oftalmol. (1)

N. N. Kolycev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 30, 13 (1951).

Z. Bahnaerzte (1)

Vierling, Z. Bahnaerzte No.  9 (1928).

Z. wiss. Phot. (1)

M. Richter, Z. wiss. Phot. 43, 209 (1949).

Other (5)

H. W. Rose and I. Schmidt, Proj. No. 21-02-040, , U. S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, March1950.

I am indebted to Mr. A. W. Kimball, Jr., for performing this analysis and to Mr. M. Bryan Danford for giving me valuable advice, both from Department of Biometrics, U. S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Air Force Base, Randolph Field, Texas.

A. Baranovsky, of the Public Health Department of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, gave helpful advice with this analysis.

G. W. Keyser, The Place of the Anomalous Quotient (A.q.) by Color Vision Examination and by Evaluation of Color Ability. (A. W. Broggers, A/S/Oslo, 1950), English translation.

E. Engelking. XIV Concilium Ophthalmologicum Hollandia IV, 4, p. 55, Amsterdam, 1929.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Anomalous quotients and ratio R/G, on the ordinate, in dependence of mixture readings of the examinee, on the abscissa. Upper extended curve: log anomalous quotients on an average normal mixture reading Rn=60, lower extended curve— on an Rn=40. Normal range between arrows. Broken curve:logarithms of ratio R/G.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distribution of anomalous quotients in 883 male persons. Number of persons, in (a) in percent, in (b) in log units plotted on anomalous quotients at grouping intervals of 0.1 log unit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of anomalous quotients in an at random compiled material of 42 protanomals, 100 normals, and 170 deuteranomals. Ordinate:percentage of persons, computed within each group separately; abscissa: log anomalous quotients. Grouping intervals:0.05 log units A.Q.

Tables (9)

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Table I Effect of color temperature of light source on mixture readings.

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Table II Mean red-green mixture readings of the first to eleventh match on 67 persons.

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Table III Individual comparisons of means of red-green mixtures from first to eleventh match on 67 person.

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Table IV Analysis of variance on red-green mixture means from matches No. 3 to No. 11 (67 persons).

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Table V Total number of readings (n) required to detect specified minimum practical differences (d) of average red-green mixture readings between individuals, on different values of d.

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Table VI Anomalous quotients (A.Q.) on normal averages for red (Rn) of 40 and 60, and the ratios for red/green (R/G) for various dial settings of the examinee (Rs).

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Table VII Distribution by log anomalous quotients (log A.Q.) and by anomalous quotients (A.Q.) in 864 (97.8 percent) persons.

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Table VIII Frequency of log A.Q. at the borders of protanomals to normals and of normals to deuteranomals. (Intervals 0.025 log A.Q.).

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Table IX Analysis of variance on retests.