Abstract

Spectral sensitivity curves were established for three intensity levels above scotopic threshold with a two-degree field placed ten degrees from fixation against a dark surround. These curves were compared with the minimum scotopic luminosity curve determined for the same retinal position for each observer. The results showed that (1) there is a range of intensities over which relative spectral sensitivity does not change appreciably from the scotopic luminosity function, (2) there are irregularities in these mesopic curves which may be attributed to cone activity, and (3) the first change in spectral sensitivity with increased intensity is found in the long-wavelength half of the spectrum.

© 1955 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. International Commission on Illumination, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951).
  2. Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952); L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953); L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235 (1910).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. L. Sloan, Psych. Mono. No. 173 38, 1 (1928).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).
  6. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 36 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  7. See reference 5, p. 353.
  8. C. W. Bridgman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 832 (1952); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 394 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. W. Bridgman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 733 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Smith and F. L. Dimmick, , 10, 56 (1951).
  11. F. L. Dimmick, Textile Colorist and Converter 67, 114 (1945).
  12. D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  13. W. S. Stiles, Ned. Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949); G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945); B. H. Crawford, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 321 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. See reference 4, p. 82.
  15. L. S. MacMartin and F. L. Dimmick, , 8, 94 (1949).
  16. S. Hecht and R. E. Williams, J. Gen. Physiol. 5, 1 (1922).
  17. H. G. Sperling, “Some comparisons among spectral sensitivity data obtained in different retinal locations and with two sizes of foveal stimulus,” Ph.D. thesis, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1953.
  18. R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951); J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170 (1953).

1953 (1)

1952 (2)

C. W. Bridgman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 832 (1952); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 394 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952); L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953); L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1951 (2)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951); J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170 (1953).

International Commission on Illumination, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951).

1949 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Ned. Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949); G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945); B. H. Crawford, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 321 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1945 (1)

F. L. Dimmick, Textile Colorist and Converter 67, 114 (1945).

1943 (2)

D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568 (1943).
[Crossref]

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).

1937 (1)

1928 (1)

L. L. Sloan, Psych. Mono. No. 173 38, 1 (1928).
[Crossref]

1922 (1)

S. Hecht and R. E. Williams, J. Gen. Physiol. 5, 1 (1922).

1910 (1)

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235 (1910).
[Crossref]

Bridgman, C. W.

Dimmick, F. L.

F. L. Dimmick, Textile Colorist and Converter 67, 114 (1945).

J. Smith and F. L. Dimmick, , 10, 56 (1951).

L. S. MacMartin and F. L. Dimmick, , 8, 94 (1949).

Farnsworth, D.

Graham, C. H.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952); L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953); L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and R. E. Williams, J. Gen. Physiol. 5, 1 (1922).

Hsia, Y.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952); L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953); L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacMartin, L. S.

L. S. MacMartin and F. L. Dimmick, , 8, 94 (1949).

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235 (1910).
[Crossref]

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, Psych. Mono. No. 173 38, 1 (1928).
[Crossref]

Smith, J.

J. Smith and F. L. Dimmick, , 10, 56 (1951).

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling, “Some comparisons among spectral sensitivity data obtained in different retinal locations and with two sizes of foveal stimulus,” Ph.D. thesis, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1953.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Ned. Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949); G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945); B. H. Crawford, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 321 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951); J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170 (1953).

Weaver, K. S.

Williams, R. E.

S. Hecht and R. E. Williams, J. Gen. Physiol. 5, 1 (1922).

Wright, W. D.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).

Bull. Bur. Standards (1)

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235 (1910).
[Crossref]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

S. Hecht and R. E. Williams, J. Gen. Physiol. 5, 1 (1922).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951); J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170 (1953).

Ned. Tijdschr. Natuurk. (1)

W. S. Stiles, Ned. Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949); G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945); B. H. Crawford, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 321 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952); L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953); L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).

Psych. Mono. No. 173 (1)

L. L. Sloan, Psych. Mono. No. 173 38, 1 (1928).
[Crossref]

Textile Colorist and Converter (1)

F. L. Dimmick, Textile Colorist and Converter 67, 114 (1945).

Other (5)

H. G. Sperling, “Some comparisons among spectral sensitivity data obtained in different retinal locations and with two sizes of foveal stimulus,” Ph.D. thesis, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1953.

See reference 4, p. 82.

L. S. MacMartin and F. L. Dimmick, , 8, 94 (1949).

J. Smith and F. L. Dimmick, , 10, 56 (1951).

See reference 5, p. 353.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scotopic luminosity curves. (a) Absolute scotopic curves for five observers. (b) Comparison of average relative curve with C.I.E. scotopic curve. The energy values are inverted on the ordinate of all the figures in this presentation to facilitate comparison with relative luminosity curves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral sensitivity curves for intensity levels, 2, 3, and 3.5 log units above absolute threshold (see reference , this page).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative spectral sensitivity at various intensities, equated at peak scotopic response (510 mμ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Limens for “lighter” and “darker” judgments at 3 log units above threshold.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The mesopic curves compared individually with the scotopic luminosity curve. The scotopic curve is plotted relative to 510 mμ in each case and the hatched areas between the curves show the increasing changes in spectral sensitivity at the successive intensity levels.