Abstract

<p>In order to answer a practical question as to the most effective red light to be used in military situations requiring dark adaptation, an experiment was undertaken to compare the effects of four “red” filters at constant brightness levels. It was obvious that with traditional methods of measuring dark adaptation, these effects could not be measured with sufficient accuracy to make comparisons. An application of the method of constant stimuli was developed which gave adequate accuracy of measurement.</p><p>The results show differences in the effects of adapting to light having dominant wavelengths of 601, 626, 640, 675, 690 mµ and neutral. The maximum sensitivity differences occurred early in dark adaptation (before two minutes). Dark adaptation proceeded most rapidly following adaptation to 626 mµ. The maximum difference between neutral and 626 mµ was 0.5 logµµL and differences between the various “red” conditions ranged from zero to 0.22 logµµL.</p><p>This application of the constant stimuli method gives results which may be more sensitive than the calibrations of standard instruments.</p>

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  2. S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261 (1945).
  3. F. Allen, Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 79, 410 (1910).
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  5. "The uses of red and orange light in the services," Gt. Brit. Admiralty DSRE-ARL/RI/0.255, 6 June, 1945.
  6. "Note on the suitability of certain light filters for use in preadaptation goggles," Admiralty Research Laboratory, Teddington, Gt. Brit., ARL/n1/0.360, 28 April, 1942.
  7. "Effect of red, orange, and white light on rates of dark adaptation," Admiralty Research Laboratory, Teddington, Gt. Brit., ARL/n4/0.360, 9 October, 1942.
  8. "Effect on the dark adapted eye of two minutes' exposure to red or orange or white light," Admiralty Research Laboratory, Teddington, Gt. Brit., ARL/n5/0.360, 8 October, 1942.
  9. "Dark adaptation following exposure to red, orange, and white light for different times and at different intensities." Admiralty Research Laboratory, Teddington, Gt. Brit., ARL/n6/0.360.
  10. W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, "The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles," U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 31 August, 1944.
  11. W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, "The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles," U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 19 February, 1945.
  12. D. Farnsworth and B. Hillmann, Med. Research Lab. Rept. No. 219, XII; No. 4, 2 February, 1953.
  13. H. H. Ferguson and T. P. H. McKellar, Brit. J. Psychol. 34, 81 (1943–44).
  14. H. K. Hartline, "Relative merits of lights of different wavelengths in aircraft cockpit illumination," National Research Council, CAM, Rept. No. 10, conf., June, 1941.
  15. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 402 (1951).
  16. E. O. Hulburt, "Time of dark adaptation after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors," U. S. Naval Research Laboratory Washington, D. C., 1951.
  17. E. O. Hulburt, "Report on dark adaptation: time to become dark adapted after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors," U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, Report No. H-2035, 30 March, 1943.
  18. W. C. Ives and C. W. Shilling, "Night adaptation after exposure to various colored lights," U S. N. Med. Research. Lab. Report No. S24-1 (90), WcI/HSM, 13 November, 1941.
  19. E . M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 619 (1943).
  20. R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, "The effectiveness of colored versus neutral dark adaptation goggles," U. S. N. Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D. C. n. d.
  21. R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, "Further studies of the advantage of red light in preadaptation, A. The effective dark adaptation afforded by red, orange, gray and black lenses." Min. Proc. Army-Navy-OSRD Vision Committee, Seventh meeting, November, 1944.
  22. James C. Peskin and J. M. Bjornstad, "The effect of different wavelength on visual sensitivity," Memorandum report MCREXD-696-93A, U. S. A. F. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, 15 June, 1948.
  23. C. W. Shilling, "Report of test of six pairs of night adaptation goggles," Med. Research Lab. S24-1/WSU/AE, 18 May, 1942.
  24. F. O. Smith, J. Exptl. Psychol. 26, 124 (1940).
  25. Weinbach, Lee, Jones, and Brackett, "Preliminary report on the influence of brightness and color of preadaptation light on the course of dark adaptation," U. S. Natl. Inst. Health, Div. Industr. Hyg., 5 January, 1942.
  26. R. H. Lee, "Comparison of rates of dark adaptation under red illumination and in total darkness," U. S. N. Medical Research Institute, Project No. X-218, 20 December, 1943.
  27. W. R. Miles, Federation Proc. 2, 109 (1943).
  28. Mote, Briggs, and Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 69 (1954).
  29. S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
  30. E. P. Hunt and C. E. Palmer, "Medical Evaluation of Nutritional Status II. Measurement of visual dark adaptation with the adaptometer," Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. XVIII, No. 4, October, 1940.
  31. F. L. Dimmick and A. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 868 (1951).
  32. Smith, Morris, and Dimmick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).
  33. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 269 (1938).
  34. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).
  35. D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis: A Statistical Treatinent of the Sigmoid Response Curve (Macmillan Company, New York, 1947).

Allen, F.

F. Allen, Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 79, 410 (1910).

Bjornstad, J. M.

James C. Peskin and J. M. Bjornstad, "The effect of different wavelength on visual sensitivity," Memorandum report MCREXD-696-93A, U. S. A. F. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, 15 June, 1948.

Clark, W. B.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, "The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles," U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 31 August, 1944.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, "The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles," U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 19 February, 1945.

Dimmick, F. L.

F. L. Dimmick and A. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 868 (1951).

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth and B. Hillmann, Med. Research Lab. Rept. No. 219, XII; No. 4, 2 February, 1953.

Ferguson, H. H.

H. H. Ferguson and T. P. H. McKellar, Brit. J. Psychol. 34, 81 (1943–44).

Finney, D. J.

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis: A Statistical Treatinent of the Sigmoid Response Curve (Macmillan Company, New York, 1947).

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline, "Relative merits of lights of different wavelengths in aircraft cockpit illumination," National Research Council, CAM, Rept. No. 10, conf., June, 1941.

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261 (1945).

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 269 (1938).

S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).

Hillmann, B.

D. Farnsworth and B. Hillmann, Med. Research Lab. Rept. No. 219, XII; No. 4, 2 February, 1953.

Hsia, Y.

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261 (1945).

Hulburt, E. O.

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 402 (1951).

E. O. Hulburt, "Time of dark adaptation after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors," U. S. Naval Research Laboratory Washington, D. C., 1951.

E. O. Hulburt, "Report on dark adaptation: time to become dark adapted after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors," U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, Report No. H-2035, 30 March, 1943.

Hunt, E. P.

E. P. Hunt and C. E. Palmer, "Medical Evaluation of Nutritional Status II. Measurement of visual dark adaptation with the adaptometer," Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. XVIII, No. 4, October, 1940.

Ives, W. C.

W. C. Ives and C. W. Shilling, "Night adaptation after exposure to various colored lights," U S. N. Med. Research. Lab. Report No. S24-1 (90), WcI/HSM, 13 November, 1941.

Johnson, M. L.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, "The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles," U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 31 August, 1944.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, "The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles," U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 19 February, 1945.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).

Lee, R. H.

R. H. Lee, "Comparison of rates of dark adaptation under red illumination and in total darkness," U. S. N. Medical Research Institute, Project No. X-218, 20 December, 1943.

Lowry, E . M.

E . M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 619 (1943).

Mandelbaum, J.

S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).

McKellar, T. P. H.

H. H. Ferguson and T. P. H. McKellar, Brit. J. Psychol. 34, 81 (1943–44).

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles, Federation Proc. 2, 109 (1943).

Morris, A.

F. L. Dimmick and A. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 868 (1951).

Older, H. J.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, "The effectiveness of colored versus neutral dark adaptation goggles," U. S. N. Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D. C. n. d.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, "Further studies of the advantage of red light in preadaptation, A. The effective dark adaptation afforded by red, orange, gray and black lenses." Min. Proc. Army-Navy-OSRD Vision Committee, Seventh meeting, November, 1944.

Palmer, C. E.

E. P. Hunt and C. E. Palmer, "Medical Evaluation of Nutritional Status II. Measurement of visual dark adaptation with the adaptometer," Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. XVIII, No. 4, October, 1940.

Peckham, R. H.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, "Further studies of the advantage of red light in preadaptation, A. The effective dark adaptation afforded by red, orange, gray and black lenses." Min. Proc. Army-Navy-OSRD Vision Committee, Seventh meeting, November, 1944.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, "The effectiveness of colored versus neutral dark adaptation goggles," U. S. N. Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D. C. n. d.

Peskin, James C.

James C. Peskin and J. M. Bjornstad, "The effect of different wavelength on visual sensitivity," Memorandum report MCREXD-696-93A, U. S. A. F. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, 15 June, 1948.

Shilling, C. W.

C. W. Shilling, "Report of test of six pairs of night adaptation goggles," Med. Research Lab. S24-1/WSU/AE, 18 May, 1942.

W. C. Ives and C. W. Shilling, "Night adaptation after exposure to various colored lights," U S. N. Med. Research. Lab. Report No. S24-1 (90), WcI/HSM, 13 November, 1941.

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 269 (1938).

Smith, F. O.

F. O. Smith, J. Exptl. Psychol. 26, 124 (1940).

Milbank Mem. Fund Quart.

E. P. Hunt and C. E. Palmer, "Medical Evaluation of Nutritional Status II. Measurement of visual dark adaptation with the adaptometer," Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. XVIII, No. 4, October, 1940.

Other

F. L. Dimmick and A. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 868 (1951).

Smith, Morris, and Dimmick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 269 (1938).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis: A Statistical Treatinent of the Sigmoid Response Curve (Macmillan Company, New York, 1947).

Crook, Hanson, McBridge, and Wolfeck, "A bibliography on dark adaptation," Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee, July, 1953.

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261 (1945).

F. Allen, Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 79, 410 (1910).

"Dark adaptation following exposure of the eyes to light of different colours, including red, orange, green and blue." Admiralty Research Laboratory, Teddington, Gt. Brit., ARL/n9/0.360, 15 February, 1943.

"The uses of red and orange light in the services," Gt. Brit. Admiralty DSRE-ARL/RI/0.255, 6 June, 1945.

"Note on the suitability of certain light filters for use in preadaptation goggles," Admiralty Research Laboratory, Teddington, Gt. Brit., ARL/n1/0.360, 28 April, 1942.

"Effect of red, orange, and white light on rates of dark adaptation," Admiralty Research Laboratory, Teddington, Gt. Brit., ARL/n4/0.360, 9 October, 1942.

"Effect on the dark adapted eye of two minutes' exposure to red or orange or white light," Admiralty Research Laboratory, Teddington, Gt. Brit., ARL/n5/0.360, 8 October, 1942.

"Dark adaptation following exposure to red, orange, and white light for different times and at different intensities." Admiralty Research Laboratory, Teddington, Gt. Brit., ARL/n6/0.360.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, "The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles," U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 31 August, 1944.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, "The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles," U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 19 February, 1945.

D. Farnsworth and B. Hillmann, Med. Research Lab. Rept. No. 219, XII; No. 4, 2 February, 1953.

H. H. Ferguson and T. P. H. McKellar, Brit. J. Psychol. 34, 81 (1943–44).

H. K. Hartline, "Relative merits of lights of different wavelengths in aircraft cockpit illumination," National Research Council, CAM, Rept. No. 10, conf., June, 1941.

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 402 (1951).

E. O. Hulburt, "Time of dark adaptation after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors," U. S. Naval Research Laboratory Washington, D. C., 1951.

E. O. Hulburt, "Report on dark adaptation: time to become dark adapted after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors," U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, Report No. H-2035, 30 March, 1943.

W. C. Ives and C. W. Shilling, "Night adaptation after exposure to various colored lights," U S. N. Med. Research. Lab. Report No. S24-1 (90), WcI/HSM, 13 November, 1941.

E . M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 619 (1943).

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, "The effectiveness of colored versus neutral dark adaptation goggles," U. S. N. Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D. C. n. d.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, "Further studies of the advantage of red light in preadaptation, A. The effective dark adaptation afforded by red, orange, gray and black lenses." Min. Proc. Army-Navy-OSRD Vision Committee, Seventh meeting, November, 1944.

James C. Peskin and J. M. Bjornstad, "The effect of different wavelength on visual sensitivity," Memorandum report MCREXD-696-93A, U. S. A. F. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, 15 June, 1948.

C. W. Shilling, "Report of test of six pairs of night adaptation goggles," Med. Research Lab. S24-1/WSU/AE, 18 May, 1942.

F. O. Smith, J. Exptl. Psychol. 26, 124 (1940).

Weinbach, Lee, Jones, and Brackett, "Preliminary report on the influence of brightness and color of preadaptation light on the course of dark adaptation," U. S. Natl. Inst. Health, Div. Industr. Hyg., 5 January, 1942.

R. H. Lee, "Comparison of rates of dark adaptation under red illumination and in total darkness," U. S. N. Medical Research Institute, Project No. X-218, 20 December, 1943.

W. R. Miles, Federation Proc. 2, 109 (1943).

Mote, Briggs, and Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 69 (1954).

S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).

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