Abstract

Using a photoelectric telephotometer and a calibration source, drift curves of the luminance of the sun along a diameter were obtained for different zenith distances of the sun on clear days. After extrapolation to zero air mass, the luminance <i>B</i> (0,0) at the center of the sun’s disk observed outside the earth’s atmosphere was obtained as 243 000±5000 candles/cm<sup>2</sup>. The data obtained for the radial distribution of luminance being comparatively less accurate, the standard limb darkening data of Abbot and others were used to give the average luminance B¯= 193 000±4000 candles/cm<sup>2</sup> and the extraterrestrial total solar illumination Ē<sub>0</sub>= 12 200±300 lumens/ft<sup>2</sup> for the mean solar distance. Previous determinations of Ē<sub>0</sub> found in the literature are reviewed and compared with these results.

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  1. Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Ann. Ap. Obs. Smithsonian Inst. 3, 117 (1913); 4, 16–17 and 204–215 (1922).
  2. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 115 (1953).
  3. R. P. Teele, Natl. Geogr. Soc., Contrib. Tech. Papers, Stratosphere Series, No. 2, 133–138 (1936).
  4. A. G. Worthing in Illuminating Engineering, ed. Cady and Dates (1928), 2nd edition, p. 38. But the following statement by Worthing seems to indicate an indirect measurement: "The maximum values of illumination at the earth due to the sun, taken in connection with its size, and distance, lead to a value of about 200 000 candles/cm2 for its brightness."
  5. Smithsonian Meteorological Tables (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1951), 6th revised edition, Table 137, p. 422.
  6. Wensel, Roeser, Barbrow, and Caldwell, Bur. Standards J. Research 6, 1103 (1931).
  7. Smithsonian Meteorological Tables (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1951), 6th revised edition, Table 144, p. 431.
  8. Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Ann. Ap. Obs. Smithsonian Inst. 3, 157 (1913); 4, 221 (1922).
  9. E. A. Milne, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 201 (1923); Handbuch Astrophys. 3, Part 1, 149 (1930).
  10. B. Lindblad, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsalaliensis, Ser. 4, 6, No. 1, 1–24 (1923).
  11. H. Raudenbusch, Astron. Nachr. 266, 302 (1938).
  12. M. Minnaert in The Sun, by G. P. Kuiper (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953), p. 91–101.
  13. M. Minnaert, Bull. Astron. Netherlands 2, 75 (1924).
  14. Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collections 74, No. 7, 15 (1923).
  15. E. Pettit, Ap. J. 91, 159 (1940).
  16. Moll, Burger, and van der Bilt, Bull. Astron. Netherlands 3, 83 (1925).
  17. D. Chalonge and R. Canavaggia, Ann. astrophys. 9, 143 (1946).
  18. W. A. Krat, Izwestia Pulkowo 17, No. 137, (1948).
  19. Minnaert, van den Hoven van Genderen, and Van Diggelen, Bull. Astron. Netherlands 11, 55 (1949).
  20. Pierce, McMath, Goldberg, and Mohler, Ap. J. 112, 289 (1950).
  21. ten Bruggencate, Gollnow, and Jäger, Z. Astrophys. 27, 223 (1950).
  22. H. H. Kimball, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 16, 255–283 (1921).
  23. C. G. Abbot, Measurement of Radiant Energy, edited by F. W. Forsythe (McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1937), p. 75.
  24. R. Tousey and E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 78 (1947).
  25. L. Dunkelman and R. Scolnik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 876 (1952).
  26. R. Stair, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 227 (1952).
  27. H. G. W. Harding and G. E. V. Lambert, Nature 167, 436 (1951).
  28. P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).
  29. Smithsonian Physical Tables (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1954), 9th edition, p. 94.
  30. H. H. Kimball, Monthly Weather Rev. 58, 51 (1930); 65, 438 (1937).
  31. H. Siedentopf and E. Raeger, Met. Z. 61, 114 (1944).
  32. Note added in proof.—Since the completion of this work, new results on the solar constant have been reported by F. S. Johnson [J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954)]. His calculation of the value of Ē0 is 12 700 lumens/ft2.

Abbot, C. G.

C. G. Abbot, Measurement of Radiant Energy, edited by F. W. Forsythe (McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1937), p. 75.

Bruggencate, ten

ten Bruggencate, Gollnow, and Jäger, Z. Astrophys. 27, 223 (1950).

Canavaggia, R.

D. Chalonge and R. Canavaggia, Ann. astrophys. 9, 143 (1946).

Chalonge, D.

D. Chalonge and R. Canavaggia, Ann. astrophys. 9, 143 (1946).

Dunkelman, L.

L. Dunkelman and R. Scolnik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 876 (1952).

Harding, H. G. W.

H. G. W. Harding and G. E. V. Lambert, Nature 167, 436 (1951).

Hulburt, E. O.

R. Tousey and E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 78 (1947).

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 115 (1953).

Johnson, F. S.

Note added in proof.—Since the completion of this work, new results on the solar constant have been reported by F. S. Johnson [J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954)]. His calculation of the value of Ē0 is 12 700 lumens/ft2.

Kimball, H. H.

H. H. Kimball, Monthly Weather Rev. 58, 51 (1930); 65, 438 (1937).

H. H. Kimball, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 16, 255–283 (1921).

Krat, W. A.

W. A. Krat, Izwestia Pulkowo 17, No. 137, (1948).

Lambert, G. E. V.

H. G. W. Harding and G. E. V. Lambert, Nature 167, 436 (1951).

Lindblad, B.

B. Lindblad, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsalaliensis, Ser. 4, 6, No. 1, 1–24 (1923).

Milne, E. A.

E. A. Milne, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 201 (1923); Handbuch Astrophys. 3, Part 1, 149 (1930).

Minnaert, M.

M. Minnaert in The Sun, by G. P. Kuiper (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953), p. 91–101.

M. Minnaert, Bull. Astron. Netherlands 2, 75 (1924).

Moon, P.

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).

Pettit, E.

E. Pettit, Ap. J. 91, 159 (1940).

Raeger, E.

H. Siedentopf and E. Raeger, Met. Z. 61, 114 (1944).

Raudenbusch, H.

H. Raudenbusch, Astron. Nachr. 266, 302 (1938).

Scolnik, R.

L. Dunkelman and R. Scolnik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 876 (1952).

Siedentopf, H.

H. Siedentopf and E. Raeger, Met. Z. 61, 114 (1944).

Stair, R.

R. Stair, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 227 (1952).

Teele, R. P.

R. P. Teele, Natl. Geogr. Soc., Contrib. Tech. Papers, Stratosphere Series, No. 2, 133–138 (1936).

Tousey, R.

R. Tousey and E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 78 (1947).

van den Hoven van Genderen,

Minnaert, van den Hoven van Genderen, and Van Diggelen, Bull. Astron. Netherlands 11, 55 (1949).

van der Bilt,

Moll, Burger, and van der Bilt, Bull. Astron. Netherlands 3, 83 (1925).

Van Diggelen,

Minnaert, van den Hoven van Genderen, and Van Diggelen, Bull. Astron. Netherlands 11, 55 (1949).

Worthing, A. G.

A. G. Worthing in Illuminating Engineering, ed. Cady and Dates (1928), 2nd edition, p. 38. But the following statement by Worthing seems to indicate an indirect measurement: "The maximum values of illumination at the earth due to the sun, taken in connection with its size, and distance, lead to a value of about 200 000 candles/cm2 for its brightness."

Other (32)

Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Ann. Ap. Obs. Smithsonian Inst. 3, 117 (1913); 4, 16–17 and 204–215 (1922).

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 115 (1953).

R. P. Teele, Natl. Geogr. Soc., Contrib. Tech. Papers, Stratosphere Series, No. 2, 133–138 (1936).

A. G. Worthing in Illuminating Engineering, ed. Cady and Dates (1928), 2nd edition, p. 38. But the following statement by Worthing seems to indicate an indirect measurement: "The maximum values of illumination at the earth due to the sun, taken in connection with its size, and distance, lead to a value of about 200 000 candles/cm2 for its brightness."

Smithsonian Meteorological Tables (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1951), 6th revised edition, Table 137, p. 422.

Wensel, Roeser, Barbrow, and Caldwell, Bur. Standards J. Research 6, 1103 (1931).

Smithsonian Meteorological Tables (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1951), 6th revised edition, Table 144, p. 431.

Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Ann. Ap. Obs. Smithsonian Inst. 3, 157 (1913); 4, 221 (1922).

E. A. Milne, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 201 (1923); Handbuch Astrophys. 3, Part 1, 149 (1930).

B. Lindblad, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsalaliensis, Ser. 4, 6, No. 1, 1–24 (1923).

H. Raudenbusch, Astron. Nachr. 266, 302 (1938).

M. Minnaert in The Sun, by G. P. Kuiper (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953), p. 91–101.

M. Minnaert, Bull. Astron. Netherlands 2, 75 (1924).

Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collections 74, No. 7, 15 (1923).

E. Pettit, Ap. J. 91, 159 (1940).

Moll, Burger, and van der Bilt, Bull. Astron. Netherlands 3, 83 (1925).

D. Chalonge and R. Canavaggia, Ann. astrophys. 9, 143 (1946).

W. A. Krat, Izwestia Pulkowo 17, No. 137, (1948).

Minnaert, van den Hoven van Genderen, and Van Diggelen, Bull. Astron. Netherlands 11, 55 (1949).

Pierce, McMath, Goldberg, and Mohler, Ap. J. 112, 289 (1950).

ten Bruggencate, Gollnow, and Jäger, Z. Astrophys. 27, 223 (1950).

H. H. Kimball, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 16, 255–283 (1921).

C. G. Abbot, Measurement of Radiant Energy, edited by F. W. Forsythe (McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1937), p. 75.

R. Tousey and E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 78 (1947).

L. Dunkelman and R. Scolnik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 876 (1952).

R. Stair, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 227 (1952).

H. G. W. Harding and G. E. V. Lambert, Nature 167, 436 (1951).

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).

Smithsonian Physical Tables (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1954), 9th edition, p. 94.

H. H. Kimball, Monthly Weather Rev. 58, 51 (1930); 65, 438 (1937).

H. Siedentopf and E. Raeger, Met. Z. 61, 114 (1944).

Note added in proof.—Since the completion of this work, new results on the solar constant have been reported by F. S. Johnson [J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954)]. His calculation of the value of Ē0 is 12 700 lumens/ft2.

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