Abstract

An apparatus for photographing Raman spectra of low-pressure gases at high dispersion is described. A multiple reflection Raman tube, 2 m long, is irradiated by two water-cooled Pyrex mercury arcs operated at 30 amp, and surrounded by a magnesium oxide diffusing screen. A two-prism glass Littrow spectrograph, f/42, gives a reciprocal linear dispersion of 10.5 cm−1 per mm; its speed is increased fifteen-fold by a cylindrical lens in front of the photographic plate. Rotation-vibrational spectra of gases at 1–3 atmos pressure can be photographed with a resolution of 1 cm−1. Various aspects of high-resolution Raman spectroscopy of gases are discussed.

© 1955 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. A. Ramdas, Indian J. Phys. 3, 131 (1928).
  2. R. W. Wood, Phys. Rev. 33, 1097 (1929); Phys. Rev. 35, 1355 (1930); Phil. Mag. 7, 744 (1929).
  3. F. Rasetti, Phys. Rev. 34, 367 (1929).
    [Crossref]
  4. Dickinson, Dillon, and Rasetti, Phys. Rev. 34, 582 (1929).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Bhagavantam, Nature 126, 995 (1930); Nature 127, 817 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. Amaldi and G. Placzek, Z. Physik 81, 259 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. M. Lewis and W. V. Houston, Phys. Rev. 44, 903 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Placzek and E. Teller, Z. Physik 81, 209 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. R. Nielsen and N. E. Ward, J. Chem. Phys. 10, 81 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  10. Welsh, Crawford, Thomas, and Love, Can. J. Phys. 30, 577 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  11. Welsh, Cumming, and Stansbury, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 712 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  12. F. C. Stephenson, M. A. thesis, University of Toronto, 1951.
  13. B. P. Stoicheff, Can. J. Phys. 32, 330 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. P. Kerschbaum, Z. Instrumentenk. 34, 43 (1914).
  15. Crawford, Welsh, and Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  16. I. S. Bowen, Astrophys. J. 88, 113 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. E. St. John, Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, 1952.
  18. J. Marcoux, M.A. thesis, University of Toronto, 1953.
  19. Stoicheff, Cumming, St. John, and Welsh, Phys. Rev. 84, 592 (1951); J. Chem. Phys. 20, 498 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Cumming and H. L. Welsh, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1119 (1953).
    [Crossref]

1954 (1)

B. P. Stoicheff, Can. J. Phys. 32, 330 (1954).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

C. Cumming and H. L. Welsh, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1119 (1953).
[Crossref]

1952 (2)

Crawford, Welsh, and Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
[Crossref]

Welsh, Crawford, Thomas, and Love, Can. J. Phys. 30, 577 (1952).
[Crossref]

1951 (2)

Welsh, Cumming, and Stansbury, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 712 (1951).
[Crossref]

Stoicheff, Cumming, St. John, and Welsh, Phys. Rev. 84, 592 (1951); J. Chem. Phys. 20, 498 (1952).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

J. R. Nielsen and N. E. Ward, J. Chem. Phys. 10, 81 (1942).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

I. S. Bowen, Astrophys. J. 88, 113 (1938).
[Crossref]

1933 (3)

E. Amaldi and G. Placzek, Z. Physik 81, 259 (1933).
[Crossref]

C. M. Lewis and W. V. Houston, Phys. Rev. 44, 903 (1933).
[Crossref]

G. Placzek and E. Teller, Z. Physik 81, 209 (1933).
[Crossref]

1930 (1)

S. Bhagavantam, Nature 126, 995 (1930); Nature 127, 817 (1931).
[Crossref]

1929 (3)

R. W. Wood, Phys. Rev. 33, 1097 (1929); Phys. Rev. 35, 1355 (1930); Phil. Mag. 7, 744 (1929).

F. Rasetti, Phys. Rev. 34, 367 (1929).
[Crossref]

Dickinson, Dillon, and Rasetti, Phys. Rev. 34, 582 (1929).
[Crossref]

1928 (1)

L. A. Ramdas, Indian J. Phys. 3, 131 (1928).

1914 (1)

F. P. Kerschbaum, Z. Instrumentenk. 34, 43 (1914).

Amaldi, E.

E. Amaldi and G. Placzek, Z. Physik 81, 259 (1933).
[Crossref]

Bhagavantam, S.

S. Bhagavantam, Nature 126, 995 (1930); Nature 127, 817 (1931).
[Crossref]

Bowen, I. S.

I. S. Bowen, Astrophys. J. 88, 113 (1938).
[Crossref]

Crawford,

Crawford, Welsh, and Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
[Crossref]

Welsh, Crawford, Thomas, and Love, Can. J. Phys. 30, 577 (1952).
[Crossref]

Cumming,

Stoicheff, Cumming, St. John, and Welsh, Phys. Rev. 84, 592 (1951); J. Chem. Phys. 20, 498 (1952).
[Crossref]

Welsh, Cumming, and Stansbury, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 712 (1951).
[Crossref]

Cumming, C.

C. Cumming and H. L. Welsh, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1119 (1953).
[Crossref]

Dickinson,

Dickinson, Dillon, and Rasetti, Phys. Rev. 34, 582 (1929).
[Crossref]

Dillon,

Dickinson, Dillon, and Rasetti, Phys. Rev. 34, 582 (1929).
[Crossref]

Harrold,

Crawford, Welsh, and Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
[Crossref]

Houston, W. V.

C. M. Lewis and W. V. Houston, Phys. Rev. 44, 903 (1933).
[Crossref]

John, G. E. St.

G. E. St. John, Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, 1952.

Kerschbaum, F. P.

F. P. Kerschbaum, Z. Instrumentenk. 34, 43 (1914).

Lewis, C. M.

C. M. Lewis and W. V. Houston, Phys. Rev. 44, 903 (1933).
[Crossref]

Love,

Welsh, Crawford, Thomas, and Love, Can. J. Phys. 30, 577 (1952).
[Crossref]

Marcoux, J.

J. Marcoux, M.A. thesis, University of Toronto, 1953.

Nielsen, J. R.

J. R. Nielsen and N. E. Ward, J. Chem. Phys. 10, 81 (1942).
[Crossref]

Placzek, G.

G. Placzek and E. Teller, Z. Physik 81, 209 (1933).
[Crossref]

E. Amaldi and G. Placzek, Z. Physik 81, 259 (1933).
[Crossref]

Ramdas, L. A.

L. A. Ramdas, Indian J. Phys. 3, 131 (1928).

Rasetti,

Dickinson, Dillon, and Rasetti, Phys. Rev. 34, 582 (1929).
[Crossref]

Rasetti, F.

F. Rasetti, Phys. Rev. 34, 367 (1929).
[Crossref]

St. John,

Stoicheff, Cumming, St. John, and Welsh, Phys. Rev. 84, 592 (1951); J. Chem. Phys. 20, 498 (1952).
[Crossref]

Stansbury,

Stephenson, F. C.

F. C. Stephenson, M. A. thesis, University of Toronto, 1951.

Stoicheff,

Stoicheff, Cumming, St. John, and Welsh, Phys. Rev. 84, 592 (1951); J. Chem. Phys. 20, 498 (1952).
[Crossref]

Stoicheff, B. P.

B. P. Stoicheff, Can. J. Phys. 32, 330 (1954).
[Crossref]

Teller, E.

G. Placzek and E. Teller, Z. Physik 81, 209 (1933).
[Crossref]

Thomas,

Welsh, Crawford, Thomas, and Love, Can. J. Phys. 30, 577 (1952).
[Crossref]

Ward, N. E.

J. R. Nielsen and N. E. Ward, J. Chem. Phys. 10, 81 (1942).
[Crossref]

Welsh,

Welsh, Crawford, Thomas, and Love, Can. J. Phys. 30, 577 (1952).
[Crossref]

Crawford, Welsh, and Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
[Crossref]

Welsh, Cumming, and Stansbury, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 712 (1951).
[Crossref]

Stoicheff, Cumming, St. John, and Welsh, Phys. Rev. 84, 592 (1951); J. Chem. Phys. 20, 498 (1952).
[Crossref]

Welsh, H. L.

C. Cumming and H. L. Welsh, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1119 (1953).
[Crossref]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Phys. Rev. 33, 1097 (1929); Phys. Rev. 35, 1355 (1930); Phil. Mag. 7, 744 (1929).

Astrophys. J. (1)

I. S. Bowen, Astrophys. J. 88, 113 (1938).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (3)

Crawford, Welsh, and Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
[Crossref]

Welsh, Crawford, Thomas, and Love, Can. J. Phys. 30, 577 (1952).
[Crossref]

B. P. Stoicheff, Can. J. Phys. 32, 330 (1954).
[Crossref]

Indian J. Phys. (1)

L. A. Ramdas, Indian J. Phys. 3, 131 (1928).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. R. Nielsen and N. E. Ward, J. Chem. Phys. 10, 81 (1942).
[Crossref]

C. Cumming and H. L. Welsh, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1119 (1953).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nature (1)

S. Bhagavantam, Nature 126, 995 (1930); Nature 127, 817 (1931).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (5)

C. M. Lewis and W. V. Houston, Phys. Rev. 44, 903 (1933).
[Crossref]

R. W. Wood, Phys. Rev. 33, 1097 (1929); Phys. Rev. 35, 1355 (1930); Phil. Mag. 7, 744 (1929).

F. Rasetti, Phys. Rev. 34, 367 (1929).
[Crossref]

Dickinson, Dillon, and Rasetti, Phys. Rev. 34, 582 (1929).
[Crossref]

Stoicheff, Cumming, St. John, and Welsh, Phys. Rev. 84, 592 (1951); J. Chem. Phys. 20, 498 (1952).
[Crossref]

Z. Instrumentenk. (1)

F. P. Kerschbaum, Z. Instrumentenk. 34, 43 (1914).

Z. Physik (2)

G. Placzek and E. Teller, Z. Physik 81, 209 (1933).
[Crossref]

E. Amaldi and G. Placzek, Z. Physik 81, 259 (1933).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

F. C. Stephenson, M. A. thesis, University of Toronto, 1951.

G. E. St. John, Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, 1952.

J. Marcoux, M.A. thesis, University of Toronto, 1953.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) High-current, low-pressure mercury lamp. (b) Detail of electrode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity-current characteristics of the mercury lamp with cooling of the discharge (solid curves), and with the cooling jacket removed (dotted curves). The intensity scale is not the same in the two diagrams.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detail of the front end piece of the multiple reflection Raman tube.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagrams of (a) the “off-axis” arrangement and (b) the “split-cone” arrangement of the multiple reflection Raman tube. The centers of curvature of the concave mirrors A, B, C, and D are at a, b, c, and d, respectively. The optic axis is indicated by a broken line.