Abstract

Spectral response curves of normal and color-defective subjects were determined with the method of electric stimulation of the eye. The curves of anomalous trichromats consist of four components R, Y, G, and B, among which either R or G is especially weak. The curves of dichromats consists of three components; R and G are missing in the protanope and the deuteranope, respectively. The three kinds of response in the color-blind are definitely small compared with the corresponding normal responses. The magnitude of response of anomalous trichromats is intermediate between the normal and the color blind. Hue discrimination curves were obtained from one and the same subjects under comparable experimental conditions and interpreted in terms of spectral responses. From these experiments it was concluded that the yellow component plays a very important role in hue discrimination of color-defective subjects, whereas it is not so important for normal hue discrimination.

© 1955 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1892).
  2. W. W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913).
  3. S. Hecht, Murchison’s Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1930).
  4. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).
  5. H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).
  6. F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).
  7. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).
  8. R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 195 (1945).
  9. K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).
    [PubMed]
  10. K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 465 (1949).
    [PubMed]
  11. K. Motokawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 54, 385 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Oikawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 58, 69 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Motokawa and K. Iwana, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 51, 155 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, 1950).
  15. H. Hartridge, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) B232, 519 (1947).
  16. W. Uhthoff, Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 34, iv, 1 (1888).
  17. E. Brodhun, Z. Psychol. 3, 97 (1892).
  18. O. Steindler, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Math.- naturw. Kl. 115, Abt. IIa, 39 (1906).
  19. L. A. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1, 63 (1917).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Laurens and W. F. Hamilton, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547 (1923).
  21. E. Engelking, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 77, 61 (1926).
  22. C. Rosencrantz, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 5 (1927).
  23. H. V. Corbett, J. Physiol. (London) 88, 176 (1937).
  24. F. H. G. Pitt and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).
  28. H. Helmholtz, Handbuch der physiologischen Optik (Hamburg and Leipzig, 1896), 2nd ed.
  29. E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math.-naturwiss. Kl. 134, Abt. IIa, 471 (1925).
  30. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  31. C. Ladd-Franklin, Colour and Colour Theories (Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc., New York, 1929).
  32. W. McDougall and Mind, N. S. 10, 212 (1901).
  33. F. Exner, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math. naturwiss. Kl. 111, Abt. IIa 857 (1902).

1953 (1)

T. Oikawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 58, 69 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

K. Motokawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 54, 385 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1949 (3)

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).
[PubMed]

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 465 (1949).
[PubMed]

K. Motokawa and K. Iwana, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 51, 155 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1947 (2)

H. Hartridge, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) B232, 519 (1947).

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

1946 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 195 (1945).

1944 (1)

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).

1942 (1)

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).

1940 (1)

W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

1938 (1)

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

H. V. Corbett, J. Physiol. (London) 88, 176 (1937).

1934 (1)

F. H. G. Pitt and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1927 (1)

C. Rosencrantz, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 5 (1927).

1926 (1)

E. Engelking, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 77, 61 (1926).

1925 (1)

E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math.-naturwiss. Kl. 134, Abt. IIa, 471 (1925).

1923 (1)

H. Laurens and W. F. Hamilton, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547 (1923).

1917 (1)

1906 (1)

O. Steindler, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Math.- naturw. Kl. 115, Abt. IIa, 39 (1906).

1902 (1)

F. Exner, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math. naturwiss. Kl. 111, Abt. IIa 857 (1902).

1892 (2)

E. Brodhun, Z. Psychol. 3, 97 (1892).

A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1892).

1888 (1)

W. Uhthoff, Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 34, iv, 1 (1888).

Abney, W. W.

W. W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913).

Brodhun, E.

E. Brodhun, Z. Psychol. 3, 97 (1892).

Corbett, H. V.

H. V. Corbett, J. Physiol. (London) 88, 176 (1937).

Dieterici, C.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1892).

Engelking, E.

E. Engelking, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 77, 61 (1926).

Exner, F.

F. Exner, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math. naturwiss. Kl. 111, Abt. IIa 857 (1902).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 195 (1945).

Hamilton, W. F.

H. Laurens and W. F. Hamilton, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547 (1923).

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) B232, 519 (1947).

H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, 1950).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, Murchison’s Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1930).

Helmholtz, H.

H. Helmholtz, Handbuch der physiologischen Optik (Hamburg and Leipzig, 1896), 2nd ed.

Iwana, K.

K. Motokawa and K. Iwana, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 51, 155 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Jones, L. A.

König, A.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1892).

Ladd-Franklin, C.

C. Ladd-Franklin, Colour and Colour Theories (Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc., New York, 1929).

Laurens, H.

H. Laurens and W. F. Hamilton, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547 (1923).

McDougall, W.

W. McDougall and Mind, N. S. 10, 212 (1901).

McKeon, W. M.

W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Mind,

W. McDougall and Mind, N. S. 10, 212 (1901).

Motokawa, K.

K. Motokawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 54, 385 (1951).
[CrossRef]

K. Motokawa and K. Iwana, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 51, 155 (1949).
[CrossRef]

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).
[PubMed]

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 465 (1949).
[PubMed]

Nelson, J. H.

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, T.

T. Oikawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 58, 69 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).

F. H. G. Pitt and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Rosencrantz, C.

C. Rosencrantz, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 5 (1927).

Schrödinger, E.

E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math.-naturwiss. Kl. 134, Abt. IIa, 471 (1925).

Steindler, O.

O. Steindler, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Math.- naturw. Kl. 115, Abt. IIa, 39 (1906).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

Uhthoff, W.

W. Uhthoff, Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 34, iv, 1 (1888).

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).

Wright, W. D.

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).
[CrossRef]

F. H. G. Pitt and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

H. Laurens and W. F. Hamilton, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547 (1923).

Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

W. Uhthoff, Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 34, iv, 1 (1888).

J. Neurophysiol. (3)

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 195 (1945).

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).
[PubMed]

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 465 (1949).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

H. V. Corbett, J. Physiol. (London) 88, 176 (1937).

Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. (1)

E. Engelking, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 77, 61 (1926).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (4)

F. H. G. Pitt and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).
[CrossRef]

W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (3)

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Math.- naturw. Kl. (1)

O. Steindler, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Math.- naturw. Kl. 115, Abt. IIa, 39 (1906).

Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math. naturwiss. Kl. (1)

F. Exner, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math. naturwiss. Kl. 111, Abt. IIa 857 (1902).

Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math.-naturwiss. Kl. (1)

E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math.-naturwiss. Kl. 134, Abt. IIa, 471 (1925).

Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. (3)

K. Motokawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 54, 385 (1951).
[CrossRef]

T. Oikawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 58, 69 (1953).
[CrossRef]

K. Motokawa and K. Iwana, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 51, 155 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

H. Hartridge, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) B232, 519 (1947).

Z. Psychol. (2)

E. Brodhun, Z. Psychol. 3, 97 (1892).

A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1892).

Z. Sinnesphysiol. (1)

C. Rosencrantz, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 5 (1927).

Other (7)

W. W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913).

S. Hecht, Murchison’s Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1930).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, 1950).

H. Helmholtz, Handbuch der physiologischen Optik (Hamburg and Leipzig, 1896), 2nd ed.

C. Ladd-Franklin, Colour and Colour Theories (Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc., New York, 1929).

W. McDougall and Mind, N. S. 10, 212 (1901).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity of electrical phosphene as a function of stimulating voltages. Except for A, each electric stimulus was preceded by a photic stimulus of definite intensity and duration. Violet light and greenish yellow light were used for B1 and B2, and for C1 and C2, respectively. Wax and wane are seen instead of a steady decrease in phosphene intensity as the voltage is reduced. See text for further detail.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time course of electrical excitability of the human eye after exposure to green light. True thresholds give continuous curve G, while apparent thresholds are used for construction of broken curves R and B. Ordinates: percentage increases of electrical excitability. Abscissas: time after 2 seconds illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral response curves of normal and color-blind subjects obtained at fovea, at a visual angle of 2°, and at definite intensity of spectrum. See text as to broken curves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral response curves obtained from other normal and a deuteranomalous subjects under the same experimental conditions as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral response curves of the same normal subject as in Fig. 3 at a small visual angle of 15 min for two retinal positions, foveal center and 40 min from center. Other conditions were the same as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral response curves of normal and color-anomalous subjects. The normal subject was the same as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Hue discrimination curves of normal and color-blind subjects. Broken curves were computed from response curves in Fig. 3. Curve drawn in chain line was obtained, omitting yellow component in calculation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Hue discrimination curves of normal and color-anomalous subjects. Broken curves were computed from response curves in Fig. 4.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Hue discrimination curves of anomalous trichromats. Broken curves were computed from response curves in Fig. 6.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Hue discrimination curves of a normal subject obtained under various experimental conditions. Broken curves were computed from corresponding response curves in Figs. 5 and 6.

Equations (1)

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Δ λ = 100 ( R , G ) + ( G , B ) + ( B , R ) + ( Y , B ) + 1 4 ( Y , R ) + 1 4 ( Y , G ) .