Abstract

Spectral response curves of normal and color-defective subjects were determined with the method of electric stimulation of the eye. The curves of anomalous trichromats consist of four components <i>R</i>, <i>Y</i>, <i>G</i>, and <i>B</i>, among which either <i>R</i> or <i>G</i> is especially weak. The curves of dichromats consists of three components; <i>R</i> and <i>G</i> are missing in the protanope and the deuteranope, respectively. The three kinds of response in the color-blind are definitely small compared with the corresponding normal responses. The magnitude of response of anomalous trichromats is intermediate between the normal and the color blind. Hue discrimination curves were obtained from one and the same subjects under comparable experimental conditions and interpreted in terms of spectral responses. From these experiments it was concluded that the yellow component plays a very important role in hue discrimination of color-defective subjects, whereas it is not so important for normal hue discrimination.

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  2. W. W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913).
  3. S. Hecht, Murchison's Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1930).
  4. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).
  5. H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).
  6. F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).
  7. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).
  8. R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 195 (1945).
  9. K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).
  10. K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 465 (1949).
  11. K. Motokawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 54, 385 (1951).
  12. T. Oikawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 58, 69 (1953).
  13. K. Motokawa and K. Iwana, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 51, 155 (1949).
  14. H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, 1950).
  15. H. Hartridge, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) B232, 519 (1947).
  16. W. Uhthoff, Graefe's Arch. Ophthalmol. 34, iv, 1 (1888).
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  24. F. H. G. Pitt and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).
  25. W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).
  26. J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
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  28. H. Helmholtz, Handbuch der pysiologiscihen Optik (Hamburg and Leipzig, 1896), 2nd ed.
  29. E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math.-naturwiss. K1. 134, Abt. a, 471 (1925).
  30. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
  31. C. Ladd-Franklin, Colour and Colour Theories (Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc., New York, 1929).
  32. W. McDougall, Mind, N. S. 10, 212 (1901).
  33. F. Exner, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math. natunviss. K1. 111, Abt. IIa 857 (1902).

Abney, W. W.

W. W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913).

Brodhun, E.

E. Brodhun, Z. Psychol. 3, 97 (1892).

Corbett, H. V.

H. V. Corbett, J. Physiol. (London) 88, 176 (1937).

Dieterici, C.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1892).

Engelking, E.

E. Engelking, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 77, 61 (1926).

Exner, F.

F. Exner, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math. natunviss. K1. 111, Abt. IIa 857 (1902).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 195 (1945).

Hamilton, W. F.

H. Laurens and W. F. Hamilton, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547 (1923).

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) B232, 519 (1947).

H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, 1950).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, Murchison's Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1930).

Helmholtz, H.

H. Helmholtz, Handbuch der pysiologiscihen Optik (Hamburg and Leipzig, 1896), 2nd ed.

Iwana, K.

K. Motokawa and K. Iwana, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 51, 155 (1949).

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1, 63 (1917).

König, A.

A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1892).

Ladd-Franklin, C.

C. Ladd-Franklin, Colour and Colour Theories (Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc., New York, 1929).

Laurens, H.

H. Laurens and W. F. Hamilton, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547 (1923).

McDougall, W.

W. McDougall, Mind, N. S. 10, 212 (1901).

McKeon, W. M.

W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).

Motokawa, K.

K. Motokawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 54, 385 (1951).

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 465 (1949).

K. Motokawa and K. Iwana, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 51, 155 (1949).

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).

Nelson, J. H.

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).

Oikawa, T.

T. Oikawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 58, 69 (1953).

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).

Rosencrantz, C.

C. Rosencrantz, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 5 (1927).

Schrödinger, E.

E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math.-naturwiss. K1. 134, Abt. a, 471 (1925).

Steindler, O.

O. Steindler, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Math.- naturw. Kl. 115, Abt. IIa, 39 (1906).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

Uhthoff, W.

W. Uhthoff, Graefe's Arch. Ophthalmol. 34, iv, 1 (1888).

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).

Wright, W. D.

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

F. H. G. Pitt and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).

Other

A. König and C. Dieterici, Z. Psychol. 4, 241 (1892).

W. W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913).

S. Hecht, Murchison's Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1930).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 195 (1945).

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 465 (1949).

K. Motokawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 54, 385 (1951).

T. Oikawa, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 58, 69 (1953).

K. Motokawa and K. Iwana, Tohoku J. Exptl. Med. 51, 155 (1949).

H. Hartridge, Recent Advances in the Physiology of Vision (J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, 1950).

H. Hartridge, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) B232, 519 (1947).

W. Uhthoff, Graefe's Arch. Ophthalmol. 34, iv, 1 (1888).

E. Brodhun, Z. Psychol. 3, 97 (1892).

O. Steindler, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Math.- naturw. Kl. 115, Abt. IIa, 39 (1906).

L. A. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1, 63 (1917).

H. Laurens and W. F. Hamilton, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547 (1923).

E. Engelking, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 77, 61 (1926).

C. Rosencrantz, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 58, 5 (1927).

H. V. Corbett, J. Physiol. (London) 88, 176 (1937).

F. H. G. Pitt and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).

W. M. McKeon and W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 464 (1940).

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

H. Helmholtz, Handbuch der pysiologiscihen Optik (Hamburg and Leipzig, 1896), 2nd ed.

E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math.-naturwiss. K1. 134, Abt. a, 471 (1925).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).

C. Ladd-Franklin, Colour and Colour Theories (Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc., New York, 1929).

W. McDougall, Mind, N. S. 10, 212 (1901).

F. Exner, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Math. natunviss. K1. 111, Abt. IIa 857 (1902).

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