Abstract

A brief history of the significance of the 1st and 2nd lens reflexes in physiological optics is presented and the development of photographic techniques for recording the lens reflexes is outlined. A new technique photographing the 1st lens reflex under infrared, and hence extra-visible, illumination is detailed.

© 1955 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. E. Purkinje, De Examine P’ysiologico Organi Visus et Systematis Cutanei (Vratislaviae, 1823).
  2. Sanson, Lecons sur les Maladies des Yeux (Bardinot et Pigne, Paris, 1837).
  3. M. Langenbeck, Klinische Beitrage aus dem Gebiete der Chirurgie und Ophthalmology (Göttingen, 1849).
  4. C. Hess, Ann. Ocul. 132, 297 (1904).
  5. H. von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics ( Southall’s translation of the 3rd German edition, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1926).
  6. Tscherning, Ann. Ocul. 131, 168 (1904).
  7. A. Gullstrand, Arch. Augenheilk. 72, 169 (1912).
  8. E. F. Fincham, Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 7, 469 (1926).
  9. H. von Kirchhof, Am. J. Optom. 27, 163 (1950) (American publication of a paper first published abroad in 1940).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Marandon, Rev. Opt. 28, 146 (1949).
  11. M. J. Allen, Am. J. Optom. 26, 276 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. M. Otero and T. V. S. D. Galvez, Anales real soc. españ. fis. y quim 46, (1950).
  13. F. W. Campbell and J. A. E. Primrose, J. Physiol. (January, 1952).
  14. Koomen, Scolnik, and Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 27 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

1952 (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. A. E. Primrose, J. Physiol. (January, 1952).

1950 (2)

J. M. Otero and T. V. S. D. Galvez, Anales real soc. españ. fis. y quim 46, (1950).

H. von Kirchhof, Am. J. Optom. 27, 163 (1950) (American publication of a paper first published abroad in 1940).
[Crossref]

1949 (2)

J. Marandon, Rev. Opt. 28, 146 (1949).

M. J. Allen, Am. J. Optom. 26, 276 (1949).
[Crossref]

1926 (1)

E. F. Fincham, Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 7, 469 (1926).

1912 (1)

A. Gullstrand, Arch. Augenheilk. 72, 169 (1912).

1904 (2)

C. Hess, Ann. Ocul. 132, 297 (1904).

Tscherning, Ann. Ocul. 131, 168 (1904).

Allen, M. J.

M. J. Allen, Am. J. Optom. 26, 276 (1949).
[Crossref]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and J. A. E. Primrose, J. Physiol. (January, 1952).

Fincham, E. F.

E. F. Fincham, Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 7, 469 (1926).

Galvez, T. V. S. D.

J. M. Otero and T. V. S. D. Galvez, Anales real soc. españ. fis. y quim 46, (1950).

Gullstrand, A.

A. Gullstrand, Arch. Augenheilk. 72, 169 (1912).

Hess, C.

C. Hess, Ann. Ocul. 132, 297 (1904).

Koomen,

Langenbeck, M.

M. Langenbeck, Klinische Beitrage aus dem Gebiete der Chirurgie und Ophthalmology (Göttingen, 1849).

Marandon, J.

J. Marandon, Rev. Opt. 28, 146 (1949).

Otero, J. M.

J. M. Otero and T. V. S. D. Galvez, Anales real soc. españ. fis. y quim 46, (1950).

Primrose, J. A. E.

F. W. Campbell and J. A. E. Primrose, J. Physiol. (January, 1952).

Purkinje, G. E.

G. E. Purkinje, De Examine P’ysiologico Organi Visus et Systematis Cutanei (Vratislaviae, 1823).

Sanson,

Sanson, Lecons sur les Maladies des Yeux (Bardinot et Pigne, Paris, 1837).

Scolnik,

Tousey,

Tscherning,

Tscherning, Ann. Ocul. 131, 168 (1904).

von Helmholtz, H.

H. von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics ( Southall’s translation of the 3rd German edition, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1926).

von Kirchhof, H.

H. von Kirchhof, Am. J. Optom. 27, 163 (1950) (American publication of a paper first published abroad in 1940).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Optom. (2)

H. von Kirchhof, Am. J. Optom. 27, 163 (1950) (American publication of a paper first published abroad in 1940).
[Crossref]

M. J. Allen, Am. J. Optom. 26, 276 (1949).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Physiol. Opt. (1)

E. F. Fincham, Am. J. Physiol. Opt. 7, 469 (1926).

Anales real soc. españ. fis. y quim (1)

J. M. Otero and T. V. S. D. Galvez, Anales real soc. españ. fis. y quim 46, (1950).

Ann. Ocul. (2)

Tscherning, Ann. Ocul. 131, 168 (1904).

C. Hess, Ann. Ocul. 132, 297 (1904).

Arch. Augenheilk. (1)

A. Gullstrand, Arch. Augenheilk. 72, 169 (1912).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. A. E. Primrose, J. Physiol. (January, 1952).

Rev. Opt. (1)

J. Marandon, Rev. Opt. 28, 146 (1949).

Other (4)

H. von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics ( Southall’s translation of the 3rd German edition, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1926).

G. E. Purkinje, De Examine P’ysiologico Organi Visus et Systematis Cutanei (Vratislaviae, 1823).

Sanson, Lecons sur les Maladies des Yeux (Bardinot et Pigne, Paris, 1837).

M. Langenbeck, Klinische Beitrage aus dem Gebiete der Chirurgie und Ophthalmology (Göttingen, 1849).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Samples of corneal and 1st lens reflexes obtained by the infrared technique on two subjects accommodating near and far. In each case the larger pair of spots is the corneal reflex. Note the difference in size and separation of the 1st lens reflexes when accommodated for near and far.