Abstract

<p>A photoelectric attachment for conventional types of visual precision polarimeters, utilizing the "method of symmetrical angles," has been developed, and its performance characteristics have been analyzed. A comparison of the precision of the photoelectric and visual observations indicates that they are of the same order when the mercury 546.1 mµ and sodium 589.25 mµ lines are used, provided that large apertures and high light transmission of samples can be maintained, and provided that the visual observations are made in a darkroom with a dark-adapted eye. In the case of micro and semimicro observations and samples of low light transmission, the photoelectric method yields a precision up to one order higher than that of visual measurements, with the additional benefits of reducing operator eye fatigue and eliminating the necessity of a darkroom.</p><p>Methods of compensating for photometer drift, polarization effects in photomultiplier tubes, and high light absorption of samples are explained and an analysis of the problem of the optimum symmetrical angle is made.</p><p>Errors in quartz control plate measurements indicate that more rigid specifications for color filters to be used with the sodium and mercury lamps must be developed to assure readings which agree with quartz control plate calibration values.</p>

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  1. F. J. Bates and Associates, "Polarimetry, Saccharimetry and the Sugars" Natl. Bur. Standards Circular C-440 (1942).
  2. C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1941).
  3. W. Heller in Weissberger's Physical Methods of Organic Chemistry edited by A. Weissberger (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1946) Vol. II, Chapt. XIX.
  4. H. Landolt, The Optical Rotating Power of Organic Substances (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1902), second edition, p. 340.
  5. H. Von Halban and K. Siedentopf, Ger. Pat. 386,537 (1922); cited from reference 3.
  6. J. Kenyon, Nature 117, 304 (1926).
  7. S. Strelkow, Bull. Sugar Trust (Russia) 2, 55 (1926) cited from reference 17; Intern. Sugar J. 29, 544–547 (1927).
  8. V. L. Stanek and K. Sandera, Z. Zuckerind. čechoslovak. Rep. 51, 245 (1927); cited from reference 17.
  9. G. Todesco, Nuovo cimento 5, 376 (1928), cited from reference 3.
  10. G. Bruhat and P. Chatelain, Rev. optique 12, 1 (1933); cited from reference 3.
  11. G. Bruhat and A. Guinier, Rev. optique, 12, 396 (1933); cited from reference 3.
  12. O. Schönrock and E. Einsporn, Physik. Z. 37, 1 (1936).
  13. E. Landt and H. Hirschmüller, Deut. Zuckerind. 28, 647 (1937).
  14. O. Spengler and H. Hirschmüller, Z. Wirtschafftsgruppe Zuckerind. 90, 426 (1940).
  15. W. R. Brode and C. H. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 743 (1941).
  16. W. F. Peck, U. S. Patent No. 2,351,539 (1941).
  17. Two Graduate Theses by A. Spell (1943) and W. H. Dyre (1948) under T. B. Crumpler, Tulane University.
  18. W. O. Bernhardt, Proc. Am. Soc. Sugar Beet Technol. 547 (1948).
  19. Rank, Light, and Yoder, J. Sci. Instr. 27, 270 (1950).
  20. Levy, Schwed, and Fergus, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 693 (1950).
  21. M. J. Walker and R. C. Raymond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 766 (1950).
  22. L. R. Ingersoll, Technical Report on Contract Nour 07100, University of Wisconsin (1951).
  23. P. J. Fopiano and M. B. Trageser, Thesis under A. C. Hardy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1951).
  24. P. R. Camp and R. C. Raymond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 237 (1952).
  25. A. Keston and J. Laspalluto, Federation Proc. 12, 229 (1953).
  26. Von W. Broser and W. Lautsch, Z. Naturforsch. 6b, 369 (1951).
  27. S. Mitchell and J. Veitch, Nature 168 (1951).
  28. Brice, Halwer, and Speiser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 768 (1950).
  29. E. P. Clancy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 357 (1952).
  30. Bates, Phelps, and Snyder in International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York), Vol. II, pp. 334–355.
  31. T. M. Lowry in International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York), Vol. VII, pp. 355–488.

Bates, F. J.

F. J. Bates and Associates, "Polarimetry, Saccharimetry and the Sugars" Natl. Bur. Standards Circular C-440 (1942).

Bernhardt, W. O.

W. O. Bernhardt, Proc. Am. Soc. Sugar Beet Technol. 547 (1948).

Brode, W. R.

W. R. Brode and C. H. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 743 (1941).

Broser, Von W.

Von W. Broser and W. Lautsch, Z. Naturforsch. 6b, 369 (1951).

Browne, C. A.

C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1941).

Bruhat, G.

G. Bruhat and P. Chatelain, Rev. optique 12, 1 (1933); cited from reference 3.

G. Bruhat and A. Guinier, Rev. optique, 12, 396 (1933); cited from reference 3.

Camp, P. R.

P. R. Camp and R. C. Raymond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 237 (1952).

Chatelain, P.

G. Bruhat and P. Chatelain, Rev. optique 12, 1 (1933); cited from reference 3.

Clancy, E. P.

E. P. Clancy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 357 (1952).

Einsporn, E.

O. Schönrock and E. Einsporn, Physik. Z. 37, 1 (1936).

Fopiano, P. J.

P. J. Fopiano and M. B. Trageser, Thesis under A. C. Hardy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1951).

Guinier, A.

G. Bruhat and A. Guinier, Rev. optique, 12, 396 (1933); cited from reference 3.

Heller, W.

W. Heller in Weissberger's Physical Methods of Organic Chemistry edited by A. Weissberger (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1946) Vol. II, Chapt. XIX.

Hirschmüller, H.

E. Landt and H. Hirschmüller, Deut. Zuckerind. 28, 647 (1937).

O. Spengler and H. Hirschmüller, Z. Wirtschafftsgruppe Zuckerind. 90, 426 (1940).

Ingersoll, L. R.

L. R. Ingersoll, Technical Report on Contract Nour 07100, University of Wisconsin (1951).

Jones, C. H.

W. R. Brode and C. H. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 743 (1941).

Kenyon, J.

J. Kenyon, Nature 117, 304 (1926).

Keston, A.

A. Keston and J. Laspalluto, Federation Proc. 12, 229 (1953).

Landolt, H.

H. Landolt, The Optical Rotating Power of Organic Substances (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1902), second edition, p. 340.

Landt, E.

E. Landt and H. Hirschmüller, Deut. Zuckerind. 28, 647 (1937).

Laspalluto, J.

A. Keston and J. Laspalluto, Federation Proc. 12, 229 (1953).

Lautsch, W.

Von W. Broser and W. Lautsch, Z. Naturforsch. 6b, 369 (1951).

Lowry, T. M.

T. M. Lowry in International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York), Vol. VII, pp. 355–488.

Mitchell, S.

S. Mitchell and J. Veitch, Nature 168 (1951).

Peck, W. F.

W. F. Peck, U. S. Patent No. 2,351,539 (1941).

Raymond, R. C.

M. J. Walker and R. C. Raymond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 766 (1950).

P. R. Camp and R. C. Raymond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 237 (1952).

Sandera, K.

V. L. Stanek and K. Sandera, Z. Zuckerind. čechoslovak. Rep. 51, 245 (1927); cited from reference 17.

Schönrock, O.

O. Schönrock and E. Einsporn, Physik. Z. 37, 1 (1936).

Siedentopf, K.

H. Von Halban and K. Siedentopf, Ger. Pat. 386,537 (1922); cited from reference 3.

Spengler, O.

O. Spengler and H. Hirschmüller, Z. Wirtschafftsgruppe Zuckerind. 90, 426 (1940).

Stanek, V. L.

V. L. Stanek and K. Sandera, Z. Zuckerind. čechoslovak. Rep. 51, 245 (1927); cited from reference 17.

Strelkow, S.

S. Strelkow, Bull. Sugar Trust (Russia) 2, 55 (1926) cited from reference 17; Intern. Sugar J. 29, 544–547 (1927).

Todesco, G.

G. Todesco, Nuovo cimento 5, 376 (1928), cited from reference 3.

Trageser, M. B.

P. J. Fopiano and M. B. Trageser, Thesis under A. C. Hardy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1951).

Veitch, J.

S. Mitchell and J. Veitch, Nature 168 (1951).

Von Halban, H.

H. Von Halban and K. Siedentopf, Ger. Pat. 386,537 (1922); cited from reference 3.

Walker, M. J.

M. J. Walker and R. C. Raymond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 766 (1950).

Zerban, F. W.

C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1941).

Other (31)

F. J. Bates and Associates, "Polarimetry, Saccharimetry and the Sugars" Natl. Bur. Standards Circular C-440 (1942).

C. A. Browne and F. W. Zerban, Physical and Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1941).

W. Heller in Weissberger's Physical Methods of Organic Chemistry edited by A. Weissberger (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1946) Vol. II, Chapt. XIX.

H. Landolt, The Optical Rotating Power of Organic Substances (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1902), second edition, p. 340.

H. Von Halban and K. Siedentopf, Ger. Pat. 386,537 (1922); cited from reference 3.

J. Kenyon, Nature 117, 304 (1926).

S. Strelkow, Bull. Sugar Trust (Russia) 2, 55 (1926) cited from reference 17; Intern. Sugar J. 29, 544–547 (1927).

V. L. Stanek and K. Sandera, Z. Zuckerind. čechoslovak. Rep. 51, 245 (1927); cited from reference 17.

G. Todesco, Nuovo cimento 5, 376 (1928), cited from reference 3.

G. Bruhat and P. Chatelain, Rev. optique 12, 1 (1933); cited from reference 3.

G. Bruhat and A. Guinier, Rev. optique, 12, 396 (1933); cited from reference 3.

O. Schönrock and E. Einsporn, Physik. Z. 37, 1 (1936).

E. Landt and H. Hirschmüller, Deut. Zuckerind. 28, 647 (1937).

O. Spengler and H. Hirschmüller, Z. Wirtschafftsgruppe Zuckerind. 90, 426 (1940).

W. R. Brode and C. H. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 743 (1941).

W. F. Peck, U. S. Patent No. 2,351,539 (1941).

Two Graduate Theses by A. Spell (1943) and W. H. Dyre (1948) under T. B. Crumpler, Tulane University.

W. O. Bernhardt, Proc. Am. Soc. Sugar Beet Technol. 547 (1948).

Rank, Light, and Yoder, J. Sci. Instr. 27, 270 (1950).

Levy, Schwed, and Fergus, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 693 (1950).

M. J. Walker and R. C. Raymond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 766 (1950).

L. R. Ingersoll, Technical Report on Contract Nour 07100, University of Wisconsin (1951).

P. J. Fopiano and M. B. Trageser, Thesis under A. C. Hardy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1951).

P. R. Camp and R. C. Raymond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 237 (1952).

A. Keston and J. Laspalluto, Federation Proc. 12, 229 (1953).

Von W. Broser and W. Lautsch, Z. Naturforsch. 6b, 369 (1951).

S. Mitchell and J. Veitch, Nature 168 (1951).

Brice, Halwer, and Speiser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 768 (1950).

E. P. Clancy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 357 (1952).

Bates, Phelps, and Snyder in International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York), Vol. II, pp. 334–355.

T. M. Lowry in International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York), Vol. VII, pp. 355–488.

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