Abstract

The possible changes in pupillary psychosensory restitution (PPR) occurring with age were investigated by means of pupillography. Measurements of pupillary size and motion were obtained from a group of 94 ostensibly normal, white, male and female subjects ranging in age from 7.5 to 90.8 years. The results indicate (1) statistically significant differences in the PPR occurring with age as reflected in a progressive decrease in mean maxima and minima pupil diameters, extent of constriction, and response velocity; (2) in general, a progressive increase in the variability of the response with age; (3) a significant, linear, and negative relationship between age and the PPR, the correlation coefficients ranging from −0.53 to −0.72 (df = 91); (4) a significant relationship between pupil size in the dark and in the light, the correlation coefficient being 0.92; (5) that the relationship in (4) is not attributable to the accompanying decrease in size, since the partial correlation coefficient for the partial correlation between pupil size in the dark and in the light, with the effect of age held constant, is 0.86; and (6) that sex and eye color are not factors in this study. Autonomic nervous system response (revealed in the PPR) and age are variables which should be considered in investigations on pupil size and motion, intensity discrimination, brilliance-function, relative luminosity, and visual fields.

© 1954 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Kuntz, The Autonomic Nervous System (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1945), third edition.
  2. O. Lowenstein, Der Psychische Restitutionseffekt. Das Prinzip der psychisch bedingten Wiederherstellung der ermüdeten, der erschöpften und der erkrankten Funktion (Benno Schwabe and Company, Basel, 1937).
  3. W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1949), Vol. IV, p. 3744.
  4. Birren, Casperson, and Botwinick, J. Gerontol. 5, 216 (1950).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

Birren, Casperson, and Botwinick, J. Gerontol. 5, 216 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birren,

Birren, Casperson, and Botwinick, J. Gerontol. 5, 216 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botwinick,

Birren, Casperson, and Botwinick, J. Gerontol. 5, 216 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casperson,

Birren, Casperson, and Botwinick, J. Gerontol. 5, 216 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duke-Elder, W. S.

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1949), Vol. IV, p. 3744.

Kuntz, A.

A. Kuntz, The Autonomic Nervous System (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1945), third edition.

Lowenstein, O.

O. Lowenstein, Der Psychische Restitutionseffekt. Das Prinzip der psychisch bedingten Wiederherstellung der ermüdeten, der erschöpften und der erkrankten Funktion (Benno Schwabe and Company, Basel, 1937).

J. Gerontol. (1)

Birren, Casperson, and Botwinick, J. Gerontol. 5, 216 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. Kuntz, The Autonomic Nervous System (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1945), third edition.

O. Lowenstein, Der Psychische Restitutionseffekt. Das Prinzip der psychisch bedingten Wiederherstellung der ermüdeten, der erschöpften und der erkrankten Funktion (Benno Schwabe and Company, Basel, 1937).

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1949), Vol. IV, p. 3744.

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Figures (5)

F. 1
F. 1

Photograph of a section of a pupillographic film. Infrared illumination indicated by the corneal reflections near the lower border of the pupils; stimulating light also recorded by corneal reflections (single arrow); widest horizontal diameter measured (double arrow).

F. 2
F. 2

Schema of the experimental situation. A, 35-mm cinecamera acoustically shielded by a sound-deadening box; B, box for rotating disk; C, housing for stimulus light; D, source of infrared illumination employing two Spencer Microscope Lamps, one for each eye; E, electrical control box containing signal horn for psychosensory stimulation and all controls for camera motor, signal horn, and light sources; F, rotating disk; G, small light used in alignment of subject’s head; H, two optically matched magnesium fluoride coated lenses of 101-mm focal length with an opening of f/4.5; I, mirror; J, prism; K, head rest; L, chin rest; M, small red light point; N, subject’s eye. Distance from N to H, 13 inches.

F. 3
F. 3

Pupillogram of a pupillary response to light stimulation showing constriction during light (1.3 sec) and dilation during darkness. The pupillary diameter in mm is plotted against time in 0.1 sec. After onset of light stimulation there is a latency period representing reaction time. Pupil then constricts and in darkness redilates.

F. 4
F. 4

Upper left: Mean pupil diameter at onset of light stimulation and at minimum size within the four age groups. Upper right: Mean pupil diameter at onset of light stimulation and at minimum size between the four age groups. Lower left: Mean speed of pupillary constriction within the four age groups. Lower right: Mean speed of pupillary constriction between the four age groups. I, initial or rested pupil; F, fatigued pupil; R, restituted pupil; I, 7.5 to 15.0 years; II, 18.1 to 28.2 years; III, 30.5 to 52.7 years; IV, 70.4 to 90.8 years.

F. 5
F. 5

Left: Pupillograms for the four age groups. Right: Pupillograms for the oldest (100.4 years) and the youngest (7.5 years) subjects. Data for the oldest subject were not included in the computations for the experiment.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Analysis of variance of the data on pupil size, and extent and speed of pupillary constriction for the four age groups.a

Tables Icon

Table II The differencesa between the means of the pupillary phenomena.