Abstract

A tristimulus photoelectric colorimeter enabling measurements to be made in terms of Munsell color space is described. The instrument has been designed to read approximate hue, value, and chroma directly upon three potentiometer dials. To accomplish this, readings of Adams a and b are obtained and converted into polar coordinates by the instrument after transformation into a uniform color space. The new color space is described. Results on actual renotated Munsell papers are discussed, and it is shown that specimens and standard must be similar in hue, value, and chroma as well as spectral characteristics for satisfactory results.

© 1954 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. E. Jacobsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 442 (1948);J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 43, 227 (1949); RP 2024.Also D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 945 (1949);errata J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 52 (1950).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Newhall, Nickerson, and Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. W. Burnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 387 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1952).
  6. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 25 (1943);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 675 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Nickerson, Am. Dyestuff Rept. (August21, 1950).
  8. D. B. Judd, Basic Correlates of the Visual Stimulus in Stevens, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 856.
  9. R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661 (1948);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1094 (1948).
  10. A. C. Hardy and O. W. Pineo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 502 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. B. Judd and K. S. Gibson, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 16, 261 (1936); RP 872.
    [Crossref]
  12. J. S. Preston, Trans. Opt. Soc. (United Kingdom) 31, 15 (1929–1930).
  13. Consult I. H. Godlove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 204–212 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. L. Saunderson and B. I. Milner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 36 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

1950 (2)

D. Nickerson, Am. Dyestuff Rept. (August21, 1950).

D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

1948 (2)

1946 (1)

1943 (2)

Newhall, Nickerson, and Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
[Crossref]

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 25 (1943);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 675 (1943).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

D. B. Judd and K. S. Gibson, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 16, 261 (1936); RP 872.
[Crossref]

1931 (1)

Burnham, R. W.

Gibson, K. S.

D. B. Judd and K. S. Gibson, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 16, 261 (1936); RP 872.
[Crossref]

Godlove, I. H.

Hardy, A. C.

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661 (1948);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1094 (1948).

Jacobsen, A. E.

Judd,

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd and K. S. Gibson, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 16, 261 (1936); RP 872.
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1952).

D. B. Judd, Basic Correlates of the Visual Stimulus in Stevens, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 856.

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 25 (1943);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 675 (1943).
[Crossref]

Milner, B. I.

Newhall,

Nickerson,

Nickerson, D.

D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950).
[Crossref]

D. Nickerson, Am. Dyestuff Rept. (August21, 1950).

Pineo, O. W.

Preston, J. S.

J. S. Preston, Trans. Opt. Soc. (United Kingdom) 31, 15 (1929–1930).

Saunderson, J. L.

Am. Dyestuff Rept. (1)

D. Nickerson, Am. Dyestuff Rept. (August21, 1950).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (9)

J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (1)

D. B. Judd and K. S. Gibson, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 16, 261 (1936); RP 872.
[Crossref]

Trans. Opt. Soc. (United Kingdom) (1)

J. S. Preston, Trans. Opt. Soc. (United Kingdom) 31, 15 (1929–1930).

Other (2)

D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1952).

D. B. Judd, Basic Correlates of the Visual Stimulus in Stevens, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 856.

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Figures (6)

F. 1
F. 1

The Munsell Meter (laboratory model).

F. 2
F. 2

Standard angular linearity characteristic of the hue bridge. The first quadrant (approximately 7RP to 5Y) is shown. The curve is repeated symmetrically in succeeding quadrants. Hue bridge nonlinearity results in notably better overall hue spacing, particularly in the yellow and green regions.

F. 3
F. 3

Modified Adams chromatic value uniform color space, as utilized in the present instrument. The figure was derived by the instrument itself when a and b values corresponding to Munsell renotations of value 5 were manually placed upon its dials. The Adams to UCS conversion equations are given in the text.

F. 4
F. 4

Accuracy of the rectangular V, a, b circuit and exposure head. Fifteen colored enamel panels were measured against an 85 percent reflectance white enamel standard. The open circles indicate panel chromaticity coordinates determined from spectro-photometric data, the closed circles from instrumental readings. a = 4(VxVy), b = 1.6(VyVz).

F. 5
F. 5

Results obtained on spectrophotometered Munsell papers (4 in.×4 in.) with the four hue bridge resistances equal to 10 000 ohms. The papers employed were among those reported upon in the Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 163–171 (March, 1953). For each major hue, one paper was chosen as a standard and the others were measured in terms of it. Open circles indicate the specimen renotation; closed circles the instrument reading of specimen; and encircled dots, the “standard” paper. VALUES of papers are designated by figure. Errors in hue reading due to tilt of the vertical hue planes are denoted where they occur by an encircled numeral 1; those due to uncorrected hue scale expansion (in the purple-blue region) are indicated by the encircled numeral 2. The color differences between standard and sample are often considerably greater than recommended in practice for tristimulus colorimetry. In view of this, it is interesting that the theoretical and measured values are as close as they are in many parts of the diagram. For additional data on Munsell papers, see Fig. 6. Consult the text for a discussion of the various types of error that can occur.

F. 6
F. 6

Results obtained on some of the same spectrophotometered Munsell papers shown in Fig. 5. The legend is the same for both figures. Resistances of the four arms of the hue bridge have here been altered in such a way as to improve the angular spacing of the hue dimension in the 5/10 region in terms of the renotated Munsell data. The improvement in purple-blue hue readings is apparent on the two high chroma papers. (Consult Table II for a quantitative evaluation of this expedient.) Instrumental errors in chroma are generally smaller than in hue, and the disparity between calculated and instrumental chroma on some of the purple papers has not been explained.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Electrical duplication of the Munsell value function by a triple-ganged potentiometer circuit.

Tables Icon

Table II Instrument hue and chroma readings for some theoretical a and b equivalents of the Munsell renotations, manually set upon the a and b dials. Shows degree of interaction among radial dimensions due to residual departure of instrumental color space from the Munsell “ideal”; and, in third column, improvement effected in readings of hue by adjustment of hue bridge resistances to optimum (see text). For each hue, both the polar and rectangular scales of the instrument were standardized for the first renotation. Each dimension of color—first hue, then value, finally chroma—was then caused to vary independently a fixed amount each side of standard, by setting the corresponding values upon the a and b dials. The instrument’s readings of hue, value, and chroma are then available to determine (1) accuracy of instrumental reading of the dimension varied, (2) degree of interaction of the dimension varied upon the two not varied, and (3) for the inserted hue changes only, improvement in hue readings effected by the utilization of optimum bridge arm resistances.

Equations (12)

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X = 380 m μ 770 m μ x ¯ P d λ , Y = 380 770 y ¯ P d λ , Z = 380 770 z ¯ P d λ ,
θ = 25 tan θ 1 + tan θ = 25 1 + cot θ = 25 b a + b ,
a = Adams a = V x V y
b = Adams b = 0.4 ( V y V z ) .
θ = 90.0 | b | | a | + | b |
c = 10.7 [ ( a 1.06 ) 2 + ( b 1.73 ) 2 ] 1 2
θ = 90.0 | a | | a | + | b | + 90.0
c = 10.7 [ ( a 1.24 ) 2 + ( b 1.73 ) 2 ] 1 2
θ = 90.0 | b | | a | + | b | + 180.0
c = 10.7 [ ( a 1.24 ) 2 + b 2 ] 1 2
θ = 90.0 | a | | a | + | b | + 270.0
c = 10.7 [ ( a 1.06 ) 2 + b 2 ] 1 2