Abstract

The heteropolytungstic acids, especially certain of the phosphotungstic and silicotungstic acids, are photooxidizing agents with properties that suggest their use in photographic processes. The chemical and physical properties of the substances are described, and simple demonstrations of three new photographic processes based upon phosphotungstic acid are outlined. These comprise a printing out process producing images in pigments of basic dyes; phototropic, and therefore reusable, printing out materials; and the development of a latent image.

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  1. P. E. Liesegang, Phot. Archiv. 6, 152 (1865); 34, 180 (1893).
  2. J. de Ruiter, French Pat. No. 380,502 (1907).
  3. A. Vasil'eva, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 44, 819 (1912); Chem. Abs. 6, 2886 (1912); Z. Wiss. Phot. 12, 1 (1913) (author's name spelled Wassiljewa in last reference.)
  4. J. W. Mellor, Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic Chemistry, 11, 537, 755 (1931).
  5. S. E. Sheppard and L. W. Eberlin, U. S. Pat. No. 1,934,451 (1933).
  6. M. Rindl, S. African J. Sci. 11, 362 (1916).
  7. The nomenclature used here for the phosphotungstic acids is based on the formulation of J. F. Keggin, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 144, 75 (1934). In this system the 12 series designates the most familiar phosphotungstic acid. It is the reagent chemical sold as phosphotungstic acid by Merck & Company, Rahway, New Jersey, and by the Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York. Further background information on the phosphotungstic acids may be found in Gmelins Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie 54 (Verlag Chemie, Berlin, 1933), eighth edition.
  8. L. Chalkley, J. Phys. Chem. 56, 1084 (1952).
  9. L. Chalkley (unpublished work).
  10. Lyde F. Pratt, Te Chemistry and Physics of Organic Pigments (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1947), p. 134.
  11. Oscar Gros, Z. physik. Chem. 37, 157 (1901); French Pat. No. 310,084 (1901).
  12. E. König and B. Homolka, Eder's Jahrb. Phot. 19, 341 (1905).
  13. Otto Fischer, Ber. deut. chem. Ges. 11, 952 (1868).
  14. Brit. J. Phot. Almanac 1933, 354; Brit. J. Phot. 80, 99 (1933).
  15. The method of physical development used here is essentially one of the A. F. Odell procedures as described by S. T. Dutzu, Leica Phot. 8, No. 5, 12 (May, 1939).

Chalkley, L.

L. Chalkley, J. Phys. Chem. 56, 1084 (1952).

L. Chalkley (unpublished work).

de Ruiter, J.

J. de Ruiter, French Pat. No. 380,502 (1907).

Dutzu, S. T.

The method of physical development used here is essentially one of the A. F. Odell procedures as described by S. T. Dutzu, Leica Phot. 8, No. 5, 12 (May, 1939).

Eberlin, L. W.

S. E. Sheppard and L. W. Eberlin, U. S. Pat. No. 1,934,451 (1933).

Fischer, Otto

Otto Fischer, Ber. deut. chem. Ges. 11, 952 (1868).

Gros, Oscar

Oscar Gros, Z. physik. Chem. 37, 157 (1901); French Pat. No. 310,084 (1901).

Homolka, B.

E. König and B. Homolka, Eder's Jahrb. Phot. 19, 341 (1905).

Keggin, J. F.

The nomenclature used here for the phosphotungstic acids is based on the formulation of J. F. Keggin, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 144, 75 (1934). In this system the 12 series designates the most familiar phosphotungstic acid. It is the reagent chemical sold as phosphotungstic acid by Merck & Company, Rahway, New Jersey, and by the Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York. Further background information on the phosphotungstic acids may be found in Gmelins Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie 54 (Verlag Chemie, Berlin, 1933), eighth edition.

König, E.

E. König and B. Homolka, Eder's Jahrb. Phot. 19, 341 (1905).

Liesegang, P. E.

P. E. Liesegang, Phot. Archiv. 6, 152 (1865); 34, 180 (1893).

Mellor, J. W.

J. W. Mellor, Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic Chemistry, 11, 537, 755 (1931).

Pratt, Lyde F.

Lyde F. Pratt, Te Chemistry and Physics of Organic Pigments (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1947), p. 134.

Rindl, M.

M. Rindl, S. African J. Sci. 11, 362 (1916).

Sheppard, S. E.

S. E. Sheppard and L. W. Eberlin, U. S. Pat. No. 1,934,451 (1933).

Vasil’eva, A.

A. Vasil'eva, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 44, 819 (1912); Chem. Abs. 6, 2886 (1912); Z. Wiss. Phot. 12, 1 (1913) (author's name spelled Wassiljewa in last reference.)

Other (15)

P. E. Liesegang, Phot. Archiv. 6, 152 (1865); 34, 180 (1893).

J. de Ruiter, French Pat. No. 380,502 (1907).

A. Vasil'eva, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 44, 819 (1912); Chem. Abs. 6, 2886 (1912); Z. Wiss. Phot. 12, 1 (1913) (author's name spelled Wassiljewa in last reference.)

J. W. Mellor, Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic Chemistry, 11, 537, 755 (1931).

S. E. Sheppard and L. W. Eberlin, U. S. Pat. No. 1,934,451 (1933).

M. Rindl, S. African J. Sci. 11, 362 (1916).

The nomenclature used here for the phosphotungstic acids is based on the formulation of J. F. Keggin, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 144, 75 (1934). In this system the 12 series designates the most familiar phosphotungstic acid. It is the reagent chemical sold as phosphotungstic acid by Merck & Company, Rahway, New Jersey, and by the Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York. Further background information on the phosphotungstic acids may be found in Gmelins Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie 54 (Verlag Chemie, Berlin, 1933), eighth edition.

L. Chalkley, J. Phys. Chem. 56, 1084 (1952).

L. Chalkley (unpublished work).

Lyde F. Pratt, Te Chemistry and Physics of Organic Pigments (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1947), p. 134.

Oscar Gros, Z. physik. Chem. 37, 157 (1901); French Pat. No. 310,084 (1901).

E. König and B. Homolka, Eder's Jahrb. Phot. 19, 341 (1905).

Otto Fischer, Ber. deut. chem. Ges. 11, 952 (1868).

Brit. J. Phot. Almanac 1933, 354; Brit. J. Phot. 80, 99 (1933).

The method of physical development used here is essentially one of the A. F. Odell procedures as described by S. T. Dutzu, Leica Phot. 8, No. 5, 12 (May, 1939).

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