Abstract

A description is given of the H-R-R plates and evaluation of the test as a device (a) to separate those with defective color vision from those with normal color vision, (b) to classify the type of defect (qualitative diagnosis), and (c) to indicate the extent of the defect (quantitative diagnosis). For this evaluation 780 subjects were used, not selected on the basis of a statistical survey. The H-R-R plates are shown to be in complete agreement with the A.O. test (revised selection) in separating the subjects into two groups: 150 with defective and 630 with normal red-green vision. The test agrees remarkably well with the Nagel anomaloscope in classifying the subjects with defective red-green vision into deutan and protan types. It rates 23 percent of these subjects as having mild defect, 31 percent as having medium defect, and 46 percent as having strong defect. For the subjects with defective color vision, a detailed comparison is presented of the qualitative classifications into deutan and protan types yielded by the H-R-R plates with those made by the Nagel anomaloscope, the Tshihara test, and the dichotomous test. A further comparison is made for these subjects between the quantitative estimates of extent of defect by the H-R-R plates and performance on various aptitude tests which were designed to select those color-defective persons who can meet the color requirements of specific but different tasks. It is shown that the percentage who pass these tests significantly and consistently decreases as the severity of defect shown by the H-R-R plates increases. The practical importance of a simply administered, comprehensive test, such as is provided by the H-R-R plates, to vocational selection and guidance is discussed, and an example given of their application in the radio and television industry.

© 1954 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. H. Hardy, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 34, 278 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Farnsworth and P. F. Kimble, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, Med. Res. Lab., Color Vision Report No. 14, Bu.Med. Project X-749 (Av-384-k) (1946).
  4. Hardy, Rand, and Rittler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 610 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Hardy, Rand, and Rittler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 268 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 102, 769 (1939).
  7. Hardy, Rand, and Rittler, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 51, 216 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. A. Nagel, Z. Augenheilk. 17, 201 (1907).
  9. S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Kanehara, Tokyo, 1925), 5th Ed.
  10. D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth Dichotomous Test for Color Blindness, Panel D-15 (The Psychological Corporation, New York, 1947).
  11. D. Farnsworth and P. Foreman, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, Med. Res. Dept., Color Vision Report No. 12, Bu.Med. Project X-457 (Av-241-k) (1946).
  12. L. L. Sloan, Arch. Ophthalmol. 36, 263 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  13. Farnsworth, Sperling, and Kimble, Med. Res. Lab. Report No. 147, Vol. 8, 39 (1949).
  14. L. L. Sloan, Bur. Medicine and Surgery, Navy Dept. (15June, 1948).
  15. J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, Bur. Medicine and Surgery, Navy Dept., Project NM 003 041.26.01 (1952).
  17. W. D. Wright, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 36 (1953).
  18. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

1954 (1)

Hardy, Rand, and Rittler, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 51, 216 (1954).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

W. D. Wright, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 36 (1953).

1946 (2)

1945 (3)

1939 (1)

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 102, 769 (1939).

1938 (1)

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
[Crossref]

1907 (1)

W. A. Nagel, Z. Augenheilk. 17, 201 (1907).

Farnsworth,

Farnsworth, Sperling, and Kimble, Med. Res. Lab. Report No. 147, Vol. 8, 39 (1949).

Farnsworth, D.

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, Bur. Medicine and Surgery, Navy Dept., Project NM 003 041.26.01 (1952).

D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth Dichotomous Test for Color Blindness, Panel D-15 (The Psychological Corporation, New York, 1947).

D. Farnsworth and P. Foreman, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, Med. Res. Dept., Color Vision Report No. 12, Bu.Med. Project X-457 (Av-241-k) (1946).

D. Farnsworth and P. F. Kimble, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, Med. Res. Lab., Color Vision Report No. 14, Bu.Med. Project X-749 (Av-384-k) (1946).

Foreman, P.

D. Farnsworth and P. Foreman, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, Med. Res. Dept., Color Vision Report No. 12, Bu.Med. Project X-457 (Av-241-k) (1946).

Hardy,

Hardy, L. H.

L. H. Hardy, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 34, 278 (1945).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, S.

S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Kanehara, Tokyo, 1925), 5th Ed.

Judd, D. B.

Kimble,

Farnsworth, Sperling, and Kimble, Med. Res. Lab. Report No. 147, Vol. 8, 39 (1949).

Kimble, P. F.

D. Farnsworth and P. F. Kimble, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, Med. Res. Lab., Color Vision Report No. 14, Bu.Med. Project X-749 (Av-384-k) (1946).

Nagel, W. A.

W. A. Nagel, Z. Augenheilk. 17, 201 (1907).

Nelson, J. H.

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
[Crossref]

Rand,

Rittler,

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, Arch. Ophthalmol. 36, 263 (1946).
[Crossref]

L. L. Sloan, Bur. Medicine and Surgery, Navy Dept. (15June, 1948).

Sperling,

Farnsworth, Sperling, and Kimble, Med. Res. Lab. Report No. 147, Vol. 8, 39 (1949).

Trendelenburg, W.

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 102, 769 (1939).

Willis, M. P.

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, Bur. Medicine and Surgery, Navy Dept., Project NM 003 041.26.01 (1952).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 36 (1953).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. L. Sloan, Arch. Ophthalmol. 36, 263 (1946).
[Crossref]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (2)

Hardy, Rand, and Rittler, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 51, 216 (1954).
[Crossref]

L. H. Hardy, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 34, 278 (1945).
[Crossref]

Brit. Med. Bull. (1)

W. D. Wright, Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 36 (1953).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. (1)

W. Trendelenburg, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 102, 769 (1939).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
[Crossref]

Z. Augenheilk. (1)

W. A. Nagel, Z. Augenheilk. 17, 201 (1907).

Other (8)

S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Kanehara, Tokyo, 1925), 5th Ed.

D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth Dichotomous Test for Color Blindness, Panel D-15 (The Psychological Corporation, New York, 1947).

D. Farnsworth and P. Foreman, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, Med. Res. Dept., Color Vision Report No. 12, Bu.Med. Project X-457 (Av-241-k) (1946).

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, Bur. Medicine and Surgery, Navy Dept., Project NM 003 041.26.01 (1952).

Farnsworth, Sperling, and Kimble, Med. Res. Lab. Report No. 147, Vol. 8, 39 (1949).

L. L. Sloan, Bur. Medicine and Surgery, Navy Dept. (15June, 1948).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

D. Farnsworth and P. F. Kimble, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, Med. Res. Lab., Color Vision Report No. 14, Bu.Med. Project X-749 (Av-384-k) (1946).

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Figures (5)

F. 1
F. 1 Sample sheet for recording results of tests with the H-R-R plates.
F. 2
F. 2 Results of tests with the revised selection of A.O. plates, showing dichotomy between number of plates failed by subjects with normal color vision and those with defective red-green vision.
F. 3
F. 3 Comparison of quantitative diagnoses by H-R-R plates and by a battery comprising the Navy lantern and dichotomous test. This comparison is based on 149 subjects all shown to have defective color vision by the A.O. test, the anomaloscope, and the screening plates of the H-R-R test.
F. 4
F. 4 Comparison of quantitative diagnoses by H-R-R plates and by a battery comprising the color threshold tester and the dichotomous test. This comparison is based on 145 subjects all shown to have defective color vision by the A.O. test, the anomaloscope, and the screening plates of the H-R-R test.
F. 5
F. 5 Comparison of quantitative diagnoses by H-R-R plates and by a battery comprising the resistor color code test and the dichotomous test. This comparison is based on 90 subjects all shown to have defective color vision by the A.O. test, the anomaloscope, and the screening plates of the H-R-R test.

Tables (10)

Tables Icon

Table I Record on battery of tests of subjects who were unclassified as to type of red-green defect by the Nagel anomaloscope (Subjects 1–3) and by the H-R-R plates (Subjects 4–8).

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Table II Percentage of subjects having defective red-green vision rated by the H-R-R plates as having mild, medium and strong defect. These percentages were computed after 57, 94, 119, and 150 subjects had been studied.

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Table III Relative difficulty of each plate 3–14 of the H-R-R test as indicated by the percentage of 150 subjects with defective red-green vision who fail each plate. The notation (G) in connection with the plate number indicates that green and blue-green designs are paired on the plate; (R) that red and red-purple designs are paired.

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Table IV Comparison of the qualitative diagnoses given by the H-R-R plates with those given by the Nagel anomaloscope, the Ishihara test, and the dichotomous test. The comparison is based on the results for 150 subjects with defective red-green vision.

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Table V Comparison of the estimates of extent of defect given by the H-R-R plates with pass-fail performance on the Navy lantern (N = 150).

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Table VI Comparison of the estimates of extent of defect given by the H-R-R plates with pass-fail performance on the color threshold tester (N = 150).

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Table VII Comparison of the estimates of extent of defect given by the H-R-R plates with pass-fail performance on the resistor color code test (N = 92).

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Table VIII Comparison of the estimates of extent of defect given by the H-R-R plates with pass-fail performance on the dichotomous test (N = 150).

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Table IX Comparison of estimates of extent of defect by the H-R-R plates with settings on the Nagel anomaloscope as to match point and match range. The anomaloscope settings are recorded in terms of scale divisions. The comparison is made for 86 subjects classified by the anomaloscope as anomalous trichromats.

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Table X Comparison of rating as to extent of defect by the H-R-R plates with error scores made on the A.O., the Ishihara (5th edition), and the Boström-Kugelberg tests.