Abstract

The ability of an observer to maintain steady fixation on a test object is limited by involuntary eye tremor. Such tremor is characteristic of balanced muscular systems such as those serving to rotate the eye. Rotations of the eye cause proportional displacements of the retinal image of a stationary test object. Data are given for typical excursions of the retinal image during various exposure intervals from 0.01 to 1 sec in duration. The data show that under good experimental conditions the retinal image is virtually stationary for exposures up to 0.01 sec in duration. Exposures of 0.1 sec entail an average displacement of 25 sec of arc (a visual angle corresponding to the diameter of a single foveal cone). Exposures as long as 1 sec permit an average excursion of about 3 min of arc.

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  2. H. F. Brandt, The Psychology of Seeing (Philosophical Library, New York, 1945).
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  14. L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17 (1951).
  15. F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 43, 163 (1952).
  16. R. V. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).
  17. Riggs, Ratliff, Cornsweet, and Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).
  18. G. E. Park and R. S. Park, Arch. Ophthalmol. (New York) 23, 1216 (1940).
  19. Arnulf, Dupuy, and Flamant, Optica Acta, Special Issue, 13 (May, 1951).

1953

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1 (1953).

Riggs, Ratliff, Cornsweet, and Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).

1952

F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 43, 163 (1952).

R. V. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).

G. C. Higgins and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 116, 290 (1952).

1951

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17 (1951).

1950

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40 687 (1950).

M. P. Lord and W. D. Wright, Reps. Progr. in Phys. 13, 1 (1950).

1948

H. Hartridge and L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 581 (1948).

1940

G. E. Park and R. S. Park, Arch. Ophthalmol. (New York) 23, 1216 (1940).

1939

Hoffman, Wellman, and Carmichael, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 40 (1939).

1936

Mowrer, Ruch, and Miller, Am. J. Physiol. 114, 423 (1936).

1934

F. H. Adler and F. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475 1934).

1922

E. Scholl, Deut. Arch. klin. Med. 140, 79 (1922).

1905

C. N. McAllister, Psychol. Rev. Monogr. Suppl. 7, No. 1, 17 (1905).

Adler, F. H.

F. H. Adler and F. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475 1934).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 116, 290 (1952).

Brandt, H. F.

H. F. Brandt, The Psychology of Seeing (Philosophical Library, New York, 1945).

Carmichael, L.

L. Carmichael and W. F. Dearborn, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1947).

Dearborn, W. F.

L. Carmichael and W. F. Dearborn, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1947).

Ditchburn, R. V.

R. V. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1 (1953).

Fliegelman, F.

F. H. Adler and F. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475 1934).

Ginsborg, B. L.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1 (1953).

R. V. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge and L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 581 (1948).

Higgins, G. C.

G. C. Higgins and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).

Lord, M. P.

M. P. Lord and W. D. Wright, Reps. Progr. in Phys. 13, 1 (1950).

McAllister, C. N.

C. N. McAllister, Psychol. Rev. Monogr. Suppl. 7, No. 1, 17 (1905).

Park, G. E.

G. E. Park and R. S. Park, Arch. Ophthalmol. (New York) 23, 1216 (1940).

Park, R. S.

G. E. Park and R. S. Park, Arch. Ophthalmol. (New York) 23, 1216 (1940).

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 43, 163 (1952).

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17 (1951).

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40 687 (1950).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17 (1951).

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40 687 (1950).

Scholl, E.

E. Scholl, Deut. Arch. klin. Med. 140, 79 (1922).

Stultz, K. F.

G. C. Higgins and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).

Thomson, L. C.

H. Hartridge and L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 581 (1948).

Wright, W. D.

M. P. Lord and W. D. Wright, Reps. Progr. in Phys. 13, 1 (1950).

Other

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1 (1953).

H. F. Brandt, The Psychology of Seeing (Philosophical Library, New York, 1945).

H. Hartridge and L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 581 (1948).

M. P. Lord and W. D. Wright, Reps. Progr. in Phys. 13, 1 (1950).

G. C. Higgins and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).

C. N. McAllister, Psychol. Rev. Monogr. Suppl. 7, No. 1, 17 (1905).

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 116, 290 (1952).

E. Scholl, Deut. Arch. klin. Med. 140, 79 (1922).

Mowrer, Ruch, and Miller, Am. J. Physiol. 114, 423 (1936).

L. Carmichael and W. F. Dearborn, Reading and Visual Fatigue (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1947).

Hoffman, Wellman, and Carmichael, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 40 (1939).

F. H. Adler and F. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475 1934).

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40 687 (1950).

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17 (1951).

F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 43, 163 (1952).

R. V. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).

Riggs, Ratliff, Cornsweet, and Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).

G. E. Park and R. S. Park, Arch. Ophthalmol. (New York) 23, 1216 (1940).

Arnulf, Dupuy, and Flamant, Optica Acta, Special Issue, 13 (May, 1951).

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