Abstract

Studies were made of the visual functions of subjects with complete and incomplete achromatopsia, with particular emphasis on measurements of the rates of dark adaptation in a parafoveal region of the retina and at the fovea. When adequate preadaptation to a high luminance is achieved, the dark-adaptation curves reveal the presence of some form of photopic receptors in addition to the normal scotopic rods. Both types of receptor are present, not only in the paracentral retina, but also at the fovea.

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  1. Frank B. Walsh, Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology (Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore 1947), p. 320.
  2. M. Franceschetti, Bull. mém. soc. franc. d'opht. 52, 135 (1939).
  3. L. L. Sloan, and S. M. Newhall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 25, 945 (1942); L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 290 (1946). W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Contour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, 1947), p. 336.
  4. G. F. Göthlin, Acta Ophthalmol. 19, 202 (1941).
  5. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 30 (1937).
  6. Louise L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 41 (1950).
  7. D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568 (1943).
  8. Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).
  9. F. Best, Z. Biol. 68, 111 (1917).
  10. N. N. Kolychev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 17, 87 (1940).
  11. W. Uthoff, Z. Psych. Phys. Sinnesorg. 27, 344 (1902).
  12. H. Rönne, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 44, 193 (1906).
  13. F. B. Hofmann, and F. Nussbaum, Z. Biol. 78, 251 (1923).
  14. K. Grunert, Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 132 (1903).
  15. S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).
  16. Louise L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).
  17. H. Larsen, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 67, 301 (1921).
  18. Wratten Light Filters, Eastman Kodak Company.
  19. (To be published).
  20. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949), see p. 288. Louise L. Sloan, Psych. Monog. 38 (1928), see Fig. 16 and Tables XVIII and XVI.
  21. The hypothesis that the photopic receptors of the achromat are cones rather than rods is convincingly presented by G. L. Walls and G. G. Heath, "Typical total color blindness reinterpreted," Acta Ophthalmologica (to be published; two installments in successive issues).

Best, F.

F. Best, Z. Biol. 68, 111 (1917).

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568 (1943).

Franceschetti, M.

M. Franceschetti, Bull. mém. soc. franc. d'opht. 52, 135 (1939).

Göthlin, G. F.

G. F. Göthlin, Acta Ophthalmol. 19, 202 (1941).

Grunert, K.

K. Grunert, Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 132 (1903).

Heath, G. G.

The hypothesis that the photopic receptors of the achromat are cones rather than rods is convincingly presented by G. L. Walls and G. G. Heath, "Typical total color blindness reinterpreted," Acta Ophthalmologica (to be published; two installments in successive issues).

Hofmann, F. B.

F. B. Hofmann, and F. Nussbaum, Z. Biol. 78, 251 (1923).

Kolychev, N. N.

N. N. Kolychev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 17, 87 (1940).

Larsen, H.

H. Larsen, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 67, 301 (1921).

Lewis, S. D.

S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).

Mandelbaum, J.

S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).

Newhall, S. M.

L. L. Sloan, and S. M. Newhall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 25, 945 (1942); L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 290 (1946). W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Contour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, 1947), p. 336.

Nussbaum, F.

F. B. Hofmann, and F. Nussbaum, Z. Biol. 78, 251 (1923).

Rönne, H.

H. Rönne, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 44, 193 (1906).

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, and S. M. Newhall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 25, 945 (1942); L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 290 (1946). W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Contour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, 1947), p. 336.

Sloan, Louise L.

Louise L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 41 (1950).

Louise L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).

Uthoff, W.

W. Uthoff, Z. Psych. Phys. Sinnesorg. 27, 344 (1902).

Walls, G. L.

The hypothesis that the photopic receptors of the achromat are cones rather than rods is convincingly presented by G. L. Walls and G. G. Heath, "Typical total color blindness reinterpreted," Acta Ophthalmologica (to be published; two installments in successive issues).

Walsh, Frank B.

Frank B. Walsh, Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology (Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore 1947), p. 320.

Weaver, K. S.

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 30 (1937).

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949), see p. 288. Louise L. Sloan, Psych. Monog. 38 (1928), see Fig. 16 and Tables XVIII and XVI.

Other (21)

Frank B. Walsh, Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology (Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore 1947), p. 320.

M. Franceschetti, Bull. mém. soc. franc. d'opht. 52, 135 (1939).

L. L. Sloan, and S. M. Newhall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 25, 945 (1942); L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 290 (1946). W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Contour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, 1947), p. 336.

G. F. Göthlin, Acta Ophthalmol. 19, 202 (1941).

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 30 (1937).

Louise L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 41 (1950).

D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568 (1943).

Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

F. Best, Z. Biol. 68, 111 (1917).

N. N. Kolychev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 17, 87 (1940).

W. Uthoff, Z. Psych. Phys. Sinnesorg. 27, 344 (1902).

H. Rönne, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 44, 193 (1906).

F. B. Hofmann, and F. Nussbaum, Z. Biol. 78, 251 (1923).

K. Grunert, Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 132 (1903).

S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).

Louise L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).

H. Larsen, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 67, 301 (1921).

Wratten Light Filters, Eastman Kodak Company.

(To be published).

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949), see p. 288. Louise L. Sloan, Psych. Monog. 38 (1928), see Fig. 16 and Tables XVIII and XVI.

The hypothesis that the photopic receptors of the achromat are cones rather than rods is convincingly presented by G. L. Walls and G. G. Heath, "Typical total color blindness reinterpreted," Acta Ophthalmologica (to be published; two installments in successive issues).

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