Abstract

Studies were made of the visual functions of subjects with complete and incomplete achromatopsia, with particular emphasis on measurements of the rates of dark adaptation in a parafoveal region of the retina and at the fovea. When adequate preadaptation to a high luminance is achieved, the dark-adaptation curves reveal the presence of some form of photopic receptors in addition to the normal scotopic rods. Both types of receptor are present, not only in the paracentral retina, but also at the fovea.

© 1954 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Frank B. Walsh, Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology (Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore1947), p. 320.
  2. M. Franceschetti, Bull. mém. soc. franc. d’opht. 52, 135 (1939).
  3. L. L. Sloan and S. M. Newhall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 25, 945 (1942); L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 290 (1946). W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Contour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, 1947), p. 336.
    [PubMed]
  4. G. F. Göthlin, Acta Ophthalmol. 19, 202 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 30 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  6. Louise L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 41 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  8. Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).
  9. F. Best, Z. Biol. 68, 111 (1917).
  10. N. N. Kolychev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 17, 87 (1940).
  11. W. Uthoff, Z. Psych. Phys. Sinnesorg. 27, 344 (1902).
  12. H. Rönne, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 44, 193 (1906).
  13. F. B. Hofmann and F. Nussbaum, Z. Biol. 78, 251 (1923).
  14. K. Grunert, Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 132 (1903).
  15. S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  16. Louise L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).
    [PubMed]
  17. H. Larsen, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 67, 301 (1921).
  18. Wratten Light Filters, Eastman Kodak Company.
  19. (To be published).
  20. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949), see p. 288. Louise L. Sloan, Psych. Monog. 38 (1928), see Fig. 16 and Tables XVIII and XVI.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. The hypothesis that the photopic receptors of the achromat are cones rather than rods is convincingly presented by G. L. Walls and G. G. Heath, “Typical total color blindness reinterpreted,” Acta Ophthalmologica (to be published; two installments in successive issues).

1950 (2)

Louise L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 41 (1950).
[Crossref]

Louise L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).
[PubMed]

1949 (1)

1948 (1)

Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

1943 (2)

D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568 (1943).
[Crossref]

S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

L. L. Sloan and S. M. Newhall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 25, 945 (1942); L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 290 (1946). W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Contour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, 1947), p. 336.
[PubMed]

1941 (1)

G. F. Göthlin, Acta Ophthalmol. 19, 202 (1941).
[Crossref]

1940 (1)

N. N. Kolychev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 17, 87 (1940).

1939 (1)

M. Franceschetti, Bull. mém. soc. franc. d’opht. 52, 135 (1939).

1937 (1)

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 30 (1937).
[Crossref]

1923 (1)

F. B. Hofmann and F. Nussbaum, Z. Biol. 78, 251 (1923).

1921 (1)

H. Larsen, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 67, 301 (1921).

1917 (1)

F. Best, Z. Biol. 68, 111 (1917).

1906 (1)

H. Rönne, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 44, 193 (1906).

1903 (1)

K. Grunert, Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 132 (1903).

1902 (1)

W. Uthoff, Z. Psych. Phys. Sinnesorg. 27, 344 (1902).

Best, F.

F. Best, Z. Biol. 68, 111 (1917).

Farnsworth, D.

Franceschetti, M.

M. Franceschetti, Bull. mém. soc. franc. d’opht. 52, 135 (1939).

Göthlin, G. F.

G. F. Göthlin, Acta Ophthalmol. 19, 202 (1941).
[Crossref]

Grunert, K.

K. Grunert, Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 132 (1903).

Haig,

Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

Heath, G. G.

The hypothesis that the photopic receptors of the achromat are cones rather than rods is convincingly presented by G. L. Walls and G. G. Heath, “Typical total color blindness reinterpreted,” Acta Ophthalmologica (to be published; two installments in successive issues).

Hecht,

Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

Hofmann, F. B.

F. B. Hofmann and F. Nussbaum, Z. Biol. 78, 251 (1923).

Kolychev, N. N.

N. N. Kolychev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 17, 87 (1940).

Larsen, H.

H. Larsen, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 67, 301 (1921).

Lewis, S. D.

S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).
[Crossref]

Mandelbaum, J.

S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).
[Crossref]

Newhall, S. M.

L. L. Sloan and S. M. Newhall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 25, 945 (1942); L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 290 (1946). W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Contour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, 1947), p. 336.
[PubMed]

Nussbaum, F.

F. B. Hofmann and F. Nussbaum, Z. Biol. 78, 251 (1923).

Rönne, H.

H. Rönne, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 44, 193 (1906).

Shlaer,

Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan and S. M. Newhall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 25, 945 (1942); L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 290 (1946). W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Contour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, 1947), p. 336.
[PubMed]

Sloan, Louise L.

Louise L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).
[PubMed]

Louise L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 41 (1950).
[Crossref]

Smith,

Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

Uthoff, W.

W. Uthoff, Z. Psych. Phys. Sinnesorg. 27, 344 (1902).

Walls, G. L.

The hypothesis that the photopic receptors of the achromat are cones rather than rods is convincingly presented by G. L. Walls and G. G. Heath, “Typical total color blindness reinterpreted,” Acta Ophthalmologica (to be published; two installments in successive issues).

Walsh, Frank B.

Frank B. Walsh, Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology (Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore1947), p. 320.

Weaver, K. S.

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

G. F. Göthlin, Acta Ophthalmol. 19, 202 (1941).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

Louise L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).
[PubMed]

L. L. Sloan and S. M. Newhall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 25, 945 (1942); L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 290 (1946). W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Contour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, 1947), p. 336.
[PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

K. Grunert, Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 132 (1903).

S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).
[Crossref]

Bull. mém. soc. franc. d’opht. (1)

M. Franceschetti, Bull. mém. soc. franc. d’opht. 52, 135 (1939).

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. (2)

H. Larsen, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 67, 301 (1921).

H. Rönne, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 44, 193 (1906).

Vestnik Oftalmol. (1)

N. N. Kolychev, Vestnik Oftalmol. 17, 87 (1940).

Z. Biol. (2)

F. B. Hofmann and F. Nussbaum, Z. Biol. 78, 251 (1923).

F. Best, Z. Biol. 68, 111 (1917).

Z. Psych. Phys. Sinnesorg. (1)

W. Uthoff, Z. Psych. Phys. Sinnesorg. 27, 344 (1902).

Other (4)

Wratten Light Filters, Eastman Kodak Company.

(To be published).

Frank B. Walsh, Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology (Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore1947), p. 320.

The hypothesis that the photopic receptors of the achromat are cones rather than rods is convincingly presented by G. L. Walls and G. G. Heath, “Typical total color blindness reinterpreted,” Acta Ophthalmologica (to be published; two installments in successive issues).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A. Order of arrangement of colors of D-15 test selected by I.Z. B. Average order of seven achromats.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rate of dark adaptation at 15° from fixation after preadaptation to 1100-mL 1° white test spot. The curves of J.F. and S.J. have been displaced upward by 2 log units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The data of Fig. 2, with time of dark-adaptation in log units.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Rate of dark adaptation. Experimental conditions as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Rate of dark adaptation. Experimental conditions as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Rate of dark adaptation at 6° from fixation after preadaptation to 2000 mL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Rate of dark adaptation at 15° from fixation after preadaptation to 1100 mL.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Rate of dark adaptation at the fovea.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Rate of dark adaptation at the fovea.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Rate of dark adaptation at the fovea.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Rate of dark adaptation at 15° from fixation.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Rate of dark adaptation at the fovea.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Luminosity curves derived from measurements of the effective densities of Wratten “Monochromatic” filters. See text.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of results of ophthalmological examination. Sixteen typical achromats.

Tables Icon

Table II Munsell Value of gray selected to match each Munsell color.

Tables Icon

Table III Relative amount of yellow light required to match red (Yr); and to match green (Yg). Nagel anomaloscope.

Tables Icon

Table IV Relationship between order of arrangement of D-15 colors by achromats and relative lightnesses predicted from scotopic luminosity function.

Tables Icon

Table V Summary of results of ophthalmological examination. Three subjects with incomplete form of achromatopsia.

Tables Icon

Table VI Variation in acuity with luminance. L.G., left eye.

Tables Icon

Table VII Data for determination of luminosity function. Subject L.G., left eye. See text.