## Abstract

The apparent reflectance of a submerged object is strongly influenced by refraction and reflection at the surface of the submerging medium. These actions affect stain and color purities in photographic color prints, the reflecting bases of which are submerged in gelatin. Print reflection densities can be calculated from base reflectance and gelatin transmittance; a family of graphs of the relationships is presented. By a simple modification, reflectometers can be made to measure directly the reflectance of objects submerged in transparent media.

© 1953 Optical Society of America

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### Equations (3)

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(1)
$$\frac{B}{{B}^{\prime}}=\frac{(0.945)(0.956)}{{(1.53)}^{2}}{t}^{2.13}{R}_{B}\times \left[1+2{R}_{B}{\int}_{0}^{\pi /2}{t}^{2\hspace{0.17em}\text{sec}\theta}{r}_{\theta}\hspace{0.17em}\text{sin}\theta \hspace{0.17em}\text{cos}\theta d\theta \right].$$
(2)
$${\left[1-2{R}_{B}{\int}_{0}^{\pi /2}{t}^{2\hspace{0.17em}\text{sec}\theta}r\hspace{0.17em}\text{sin}\theta \hspace{0.17em}\text{cos}\theta d\theta \right]}^{-1},$$
(3)
$$B/{B}^{\prime}=0.193{t}^{2.13}{\left[\frac{1}{2{R}_{B}}-{\int}_{0}^{\pi /2}{t}^{2\hspace{0.17em}\text{sec}\theta}{r}_{\theta}\hspace{0.17em}\text{sin}\theta \hspace{0.17em}\text{cos}\theta d\theta \right]}^{-1}.$$