Abstract

The apparent reflectance of a submerged object is strongly influenced by refraction and reflection at the surface of the submerging medium. These actions affect stain and color purities in photographic color prints, the reflecting bases of which are submerged in gelatin. Print reflection densities can be calculated from base reflectance and gelatin transmittance; a family of graphs of the relationships is presented. By a simple modification, reflectometers can be made to measure directly the reflectance of objects submerged in transparent media.

© 1953 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 29, 329 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  2. Unpublished work.
  3. F. C. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 104 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  4. Color Sensitometry Subcommittee, Principles of Color Sensitometry, Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, New York, 1950.

1950 (1)

1942 (1)

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 29, 329 (1942).
[Crossref]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 29, 329 (1942).
[Crossref]

Williams, F. C.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (1)

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 29, 329 (1942).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Unpublished work.

Color Sensitometry Subcommittee, Principles of Color Sensitometry, Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, New York, 1950.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial optical systems of (a) a photographic color print, and (b) its base only, in air. Both are illuminated at 45-degree incidence and viewed from the same position along a normal to the surfaces.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Internal reflections in a photographic color print.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Factors in the equation for computing print reflectances.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflection densities of photographic color-print images as functions of transmission density of the gelatin overlay, for each of a series of base reflectances RB.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The gelatin overlay of transmission-density distribution a forms a print as shown by b. Without the compensating action of internal reflections, the print would be as shown by c. If neither refraction nor reflection took place at the emergence interface, a print as shown by d could be made.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Visually neutral combinations of a set of dyes in a transparency and of the same dyes in a color-print image; in both cases, dye amounts have been adjusted to form a visual density equal to 1.5. (b) Spectral-density distributions of the red images resulting from removing all of the cyan dye from the combinations shown in Fig. 6(a). (c) Spectral-density distributions of the green images resulting from removing all of the magenta dye from the combinations shown in Fig. 6(a). (d) Spectral-density distributions of the blue images resulting from removing all of the yellow dye from the combinations shown in Fig. 6(a). (e) Chromaticity coordinates (CIE) of the red, green, and blue images of Fig. 6(b), 6(c), and 6(d). It is shown that the purities of the reflection images are lower than those of the transmission images; their luminances also are lower.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

An attachment for a reflectometer, providing means of direct measurement of submerged-condition reflectances.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationship between reflection density of a synthetic color print and transmission density of its absorbing component, as determined by a reflection densitometer equipped with thick glass sample window.

Equations (3)

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B B = ( 0.945 ) ( 0.956 ) ( 1.53 ) 2 t 2.13 R B × [ 1 + 2 R B 0 π / 2 t 2 sec θ r θ sin θ cos θ d θ ] .
[ 1 - 2 R B 0 π / 2 t 2 sec θ r sin θ cos θ d θ ] - 1 ,
B / B = 0.193 t 2 .13 [ 1 2 R B - 0 π / 2 t 2 sec θ r θ sin θ cos θ d θ ] - 1 .