Abstract

A method of analyzing the mixing characteristics of binary liquid jets in a liquid stream has been developed. It consists of a modified schlieren system in which the aperture of the camera lens acts as a circular schlieren knife edge. The liquid stream which is to be studied is placed in the schlieren field. This liquid stream is in a glass tube which is contained in a rectangular glass-sided cell filled with liquid of about the same index of refraction as the glass tube. This masks the refractive effect of the glass tube and much of the lens effect of the round cross section of the stream. It is shown that for a definite minimum energy of injection, the mixing becomes essentially complete at the end of the mixing region. The region of mixing appears on the photographs as a region of special turbulence above the jet openings in which the jet energy is being dissipated.

© 1953 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Marcus F. Heidmann and Jack C. Humphrey, J. Am. Rocket Soc. 22, 127 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  2. V. F. Barnes and S. L. Bellinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 497 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  3. Keagy, Ellis, and Reid, , The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California, 1949.
  4. Edmonson, Gayhart, and Olsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 984 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. H. Hunt, Naval Ordnance Test Station, TM No. 7524–23, China Lake, California, June, 1950.
  6. C. W. Woodworth, Microscope Theory (The Commercial Press, Ltd., Shanghai, 1924), pp. 45–52.

1952 (2)

Marcus F. Heidmann and Jack C. Humphrey, J. Am. Rocket Soc. 22, 127 (1952).
[Crossref]

Edmonson, Gayhart, and Olsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 984 (1952).
[Crossref]

1945 (1)

Barnes, V. F.

Bellinger, S. L.

Edmonson,

Ellis,

Keagy, Ellis, and Reid, , The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California, 1949.

Gayhart,

Heidmann, Marcus F.

Marcus F. Heidmann and Jack C. Humphrey, J. Am. Rocket Soc. 22, 127 (1952).
[Crossref]

Humphrey, Jack C.

Marcus F. Heidmann and Jack C. Humphrey, J. Am. Rocket Soc. 22, 127 (1952).
[Crossref]

Hunt, M. H.

M. H. Hunt, Naval Ordnance Test Station, TM No. 7524–23, China Lake, California, June, 1950.

Keagy,

Keagy, Ellis, and Reid, , The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California, 1949.

Olsen,

Reid,

Keagy, Ellis, and Reid, , The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California, 1949.

Woodworth, C. W.

C. W. Woodworth, Microscope Theory (The Commercial Press, Ltd., Shanghai, 1924), pp. 45–52.

J. Am. Rocket Soc. (1)

Marcus F. Heidmann and Jack C. Humphrey, J. Am. Rocket Soc. 22, 127 (1952).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Other (3)

M. H. Hunt, Naval Ordnance Test Station, TM No. 7524–23, China Lake, California, June, 1950.

C. W. Woodworth, Microscope Theory (The Commercial Press, Ltd., Shanghai, 1924), pp. 45–52.

Keagy, Ellis, and Reid, , The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California, 1949.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Detail of injector design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Positive displacement injection equipment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A. Optical arrangement of the schlieren system. B. Ray diagram of mixing tube, iris diaphragm of camera lens, and plate image, drawn approximately to scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Print of three tubes containing the quiescent liquids.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Woodworth’s method of geometric ray tracing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diagram of rays passing through a tube containing the oxidizer liquid.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diagram of rays passing through a tube containing the fuel liquid.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diagram of rays passing through a tube containing mixture of the two liquids.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Series of films arranged in accordance with increasing flow rates.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Height of region of mixing plotted against flow rates.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Average width of dark edges plotted against flow rates.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( 1.5 - 0.062 ) / 33 or about 0.043 radian .
( 1.50 - 0.27 ) / 33 = 0.037 radian .