Abstract

The spectral sensitivity of the 1° fovea of the right eye of two practiced observers was measured at 10 mμ intervals from 400 mμ to 700 mμ for the dark-adapted state and for the bright-adapted (10mL), chromatically neutral state. Ten complete luminosity functions were obtained for each observer for each of the specified adaptations. The data of these experiments are intended to provide controls against which to evaluate luminosity data for different chromatic states. A number of inflections and shoulders are found in the functions for both states of adaptation. Moreover, the functions for both observers are shown to undergo a change in form and a displacement from the bright to the dark-adapted state. These changes in the foveal functions, although small in magnitude, are in the same sense as the familiar “Purkinje shift.” Alternative theoretical explanations of the data are discussed and analyzed.

© 1953 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision and the Trichromatic Theory (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913), p. 384 ff.
  2. S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 231 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  3. E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 24, 168 (1940).
  4. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 372.
  5. G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 114 (1945).
  6. L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1929), Vol. II, p. 199.
  7. R. M. Evans, An Introduction to Color (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), pp. 131, 136, 227 ff. See, for example, the discussion of this problem by R. M. Evans. Recognition by him of the need for adequate experimental data to resolve the contradiction was, in fact, responsible for the qualifiers in his statement that the “… sensitivity [of the brightness receptor] to wavelength does not change appreciably as far as is known at the present time.” (p. 136).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. L. Tufts, Phys. Rev. 25, 433 (1907).
  9. L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 947 (1916).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 110B, 448 (1932).
  11. H. Piéron, Sciences, Rev. assoc. franc. avance. sci. 70, 265 (1943).
  12. G. J. Burch, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 191B, 1 (1899).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. T. Troland and C. H. Langford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 409 (1922).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. F. Hamilton and H. Laurens, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 569 (1923).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. T. Federov and V. J. Federova, Z. Physik. 57, 855 (1929).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).
  17. W. S. Stiles, Documenta Ophthalmologica 3, 138 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 3 (1922).
  19. L. T. Troland, Nela Park Abstract Bulletin, , 388 (1922).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 40, 1 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Dittler and Y. Satake, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 240 (1914).
  22. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. J. Crozier, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  25. W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).
  26. E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).
  27. S. W. Kravkov, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 210, 781 (1925).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), p. 1516.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 19, 131 (1923–24).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  31. G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  32. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 787 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  34. Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).
  35. A. E. Jacobsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 442 (1948).
  36. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 945 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  37. W. S. Stiles, Ned. T. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949).
  38. L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928).
  39. H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).
  40. L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 112, 114 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  41. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947), p. 272.
    [Crossref]
  42. R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 114, 435 (1951), p. 439.
    [Crossref]
  43. M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalmologica 4, 23 (1950), pp. 79–81.
  44. Fischer, Bouman, and Ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthalmologica 5–6, 73 (1951).
  45. A. Pflüger, Ann. Phys. 9(4), 185 (1902). In this context it may be noted that Pflüger, in his early study of the scotopic luminosity function, reported marked irregularities in the measured curves for all his observers. See also reference 42a.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. P. Berger and J. Ségal, Compt. rend. 232, 1241 (1951).
  47. E. G. Boring, Sensation and Perception in the History of Experimental Psychology (D. Appleton-Century Company, New York, 1942), pp. 181, 195.
  48. L. T. Troland, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (edited by C. Murchison) (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), p. 667.
  49. G. Wald, Science,  101, 653 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  50. W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (D. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1939), Vol. I. p. 962.
  51. A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), pp. 1525–1532.
  52. L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928), pp. 74, 83.
  53. E. Hering, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 519 (1895).
  54. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), pp. 79 and 88 ff.
    [Crossref]
  55. L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).
  56. K. Gross, Sitzber. Phys.-Med. Soz. zu Erlangen 56/57, 399 (1924/25). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.
  57. K. Gross, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 215 (1928). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.
  58. W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).
  59. S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941), p. 203.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  60. F. Hillebrand, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. III,  98, 70 (1889); Z. Sinnesphysiol. 51, 46 (1920).
    [Crossref]
  61. W. M. Venable, Am. J. Physiol. Optics 5, 22 (1924). A similar analysis of the luminosity function.
    [Crossref]
  62. D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (edited by S. S. Stevens) (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 831.
  63. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  64. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
  65. H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthal. 32, 793 (1948).
  66. J. Ségal, Ann. D’Oculistique 184, 289 (1951). A similar hypothesis to that of Dartnall, developed independently.
  67. L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Opthal. 33, 505 (1949).

1952 (1)

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).

1951 (9)

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).
[Crossref]

J. Ségal, Ann. D’Oculistique 184, 289 (1951). A similar hypothesis to that of Dartnall, developed independently.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).
[Crossref]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
[Crossref]

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 112, 114 (1951).
[Crossref]

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 114, 435 (1951), p. 439.
[Crossref]

Fischer, Bouman, and Ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthalmologica 5–6, 73 (1951).

P. Berger and J. Ségal, Compt. rend. 232, 1241 (1951).

1950 (2)

M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalmologica 4, 23 (1950), pp. 79–81.

W. J. Crozier, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).
[Crossref]

1949 (6)

W. S. Stiles, Documenta Ophthalmologica 3, 138 (1949).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, Ned. T. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949).

L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 787 (1949).
[Crossref]

L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Opthal. 33, 505 (1949).

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 945 (1949).
[Crossref]

1948 (2)

A. E. Jacobsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 442 (1948).

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthal. 32, 793 (1948).

1947 (1)

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).

1945 (3)

G. Wald, Science,  101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref]

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref]

G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 114 (1945).

1943 (2)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).

H. Piéron, Sciences, Rev. assoc. franc. avance. sci. 70, 265 (1943).

1940 (1)

E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 24, 168 (1940).

1939 (1)

H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 40, 1 (1939).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

1933 (2)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).

1932 (1)

H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 110B, 448 (1932).

1931 (2)

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), p. 1516.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), pp. 1525–1532.

1930 (1)

1929 (1)

N. T. Federov and V. J. Federova, Z. Physik. 57, 855 (1929).
[Crossref]

1928 (3)

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928), pp. 74, 83.

K. Gross, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 215 (1928). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928).

1925 (1)

S. W. Kravkov, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 210, 781 (1925).
[Crossref]

1924 (1)

W. M. Venable, Am. J. Physiol. Optics 5, 22 (1924). A similar analysis of the luminosity function.
[Crossref]

1923 (1)

W. F. Hamilton and H. Laurens, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 569 (1923).
[Crossref]

1922 (2)

L. T. Troland and C. H. Langford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 409 (1922).
[Crossref]

L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 3 (1922).

1916 (3)

L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 947 (1916).
[Crossref]

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

1914 (1)

R. Dittler and Y. Satake, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 240 (1914).

1907 (1)

F. L. Tufts, Phys. Rev. 25, 433 (1907).

1902 (1)

A. Pflüger, Ann. Phys. 9(4), 185 (1902). In this context it may be noted that Pflüger, in his early study of the scotopic luminosity function, reported marked irregularities in the measured curves for all his observers. See also reference 42a.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1899 (1)

G. J. Burch, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 191B, 1 (1899).
[Crossref]

1895 (1)

E. Hering, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 519 (1895).

1889 (1)

F. Hillebrand, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. III,  98, 70 (1889); Z. Sinnesphysiol. 51, 46 (1920).
[Crossref]

Abney, W.

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision and the Trichromatic Theory (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913), p. 384 ff.

Berger, P.

P. Berger and J. Ségal, Compt. rend. 232, 1241 (1951).

Boring, E. G.

E. G. Boring, Sensation and Perception in the History of Experimental Psychology (D. Appleton-Century Company, New York, 1942), pp. 181, 195.

Bouman,

Fischer, Bouman, and Ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthalmologica 5–6, 73 (1951).

Bouman, M. A.

M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalmologica 4, 23 (1950), pp. 79–81.

Burch, G. J.

G. J. Burch, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 191B, 1 (1899).
[Crossref]

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).
[Crossref]

Crozier, W. J.

W. J. Crozier, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).
[Crossref]

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthal. 32, 793 (1948).

Dittler, R.

R. Dittler and Y. Satake, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 240 (1914).

Duke-Elder, W. S.

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (D. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1939), Vol. I. p. 962.

Evans, R. M.

R. M. Evans, An Introduction to Color (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), pp. 131, 136, 227 ff. See, for example, the discussion of this problem by R. M. Evans. Recognition by him of the need for adequate experimental data to resolve the contradiction was, in fact, responsible for the qualifiers in his statement that the “… sensitivity [of the brightness receptor] to wavelength does not change appreciably as far as is known at the present time.” (p. 136).
[Crossref]

Federov, N. T.

N. T. Federov and V. J. Federova, Z. Physik. 57, 855 (1929).
[Crossref]

Federova, V. J.

N. T. Federov and V. J. Federova, Z. Physik. 57, 855 (1929).
[Crossref]

Fischer,

Fischer, Bouman, and Ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthalmologica 5–6, 73 (1951).

Fry, G. A.

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 19, 131 (1923–24).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, C. H.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947), p. 272.
[Crossref]

Gross, K.

K. Gross, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 215 (1928). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.

K. Gross, Sitzber. Phys.-Med. Soz. zu Erlangen 56/57, 399 (1924/25). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.

Hamilton, W. F.

W. F. Hamilton and H. Laurens, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 569 (1923).
[Crossref]

Hecht, S.

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 519 (1895).

Hillebrand, F.

F. Hillebrand, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. III,  98, 70 (1889); Z. Sinnesphysiol. 51, 46 (1920).
[Crossref]

Hsia, Y.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).
[Crossref]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).
[Crossref]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, A. E.

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).
[Crossref]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
[Crossref]

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).
[Crossref]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 945 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (edited by S. S. Stevens) (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 831.

Kohlrausch, A.

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), pp. 1525–1532.

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), p. 1516.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kravkov, S. W.

S. W. Kravkov, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 210, 781 (1925).
[Crossref]

Langford, C. H.

L. T. Troland and C. H. Langford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 409 (1922).
[Crossref]

Laurens, H.

W. F. Hamilton and H. Laurens, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 569 (1923).
[Crossref]

Ludvigh, E.

E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 24, 168 (1940).

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

McCarthy, E. F.

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

Pflüger, A.

A. Pflüger, Ann. Phys. 9(4), 185 (1902). In this context it may be noted that Pflüger, in his early study of the scotopic luminosity function, reported marked irregularities in the measured curves for all his observers. See also reference 42a.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piéron, H.

H. Piéron, Sciences, Rev. assoc. franc. avance. sci. 70, 265 (1943).

H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 40, 1 (1939).
[Crossref]

Polyak, S.

S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941), p. 203.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roaf, H. E.

H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 110B, 448 (1932).

Satake, Y.

R. Dittler and Y. Satake, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 240 (1914).

Ségal, J.

P. Berger and J. Ségal, Compt. rend. 232, 1241 (1951).

J. Ségal, Ann. D’Oculistique 184, 289 (1951). A similar hypothesis to that of Dartnall, developed independently.

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928).

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928), pp. 74, 83.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Ned. T. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949).

W. S. Stiles, Documenta Ophthalmologica 3, 138 (1949).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).
[Crossref]

Ten Doesschate,

Fischer, Bouman, and Ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthalmologica 5–6, 73 (1951).

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 112, 114 (1951).
[Crossref]

L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Opthal. 33, 505 (1949).

L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 787 (1949).
[Crossref]

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland and C. H. Langford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 409 (1922).
[Crossref]

L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 3 (1922).

L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 947 (1916).
[Crossref]

L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1929), Vol. II, p. 199.

L. T. Troland, Nela Park Abstract Bulletin, , 388 (1922).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. T. Troland, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (edited by C. Murchison) (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), p. 667.

Tufts, F. L.

F. L. Tufts, Phys. Rev. 25, 433 (1907).

Tyndall, E. P. T.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 19, 131 (1923–24).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venable, W. M.

W. M. Venable, Am. J. Physiol. Optics 5, 22 (1924). A similar analysis of the luminosity function.
[Crossref]

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science,  101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref]

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref]

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).

Watson, W.

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 114, 435 (1951), p. 439.
[Crossref]

Weaver, K. S.

Wright, W. D.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), pp. 79 and 88 ff.
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 372.

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

W. F. Hamilton and H. Laurens, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 569 (1923).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Physiol. Optics (1)

W. M. Venable, Am. J. Physiol. Optics 5, 22 (1924). A similar analysis of the luminosity function.
[Crossref]

Ann. D’Oculistique (1)

J. Ségal, Ann. D’Oculistique 184, 289 (1951). A similar hypothesis to that of Dartnall, developed independently.

Ann. Phys. (1)

A. Pflüger, Ann. Phys. 9(4), 185 (1902). In this context it may be noted that Pflüger, in his early study of the scotopic luminosity function, reported marked irregularities in the measured curves for all his observers. See also reference 42a.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Année Psychol. (1)

H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 40, 1 (1939).
[Crossref]

Arch. Ophthal. (2)

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 24, 168 (1940).

Brit. J. Ophthal. (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthal. 32, 793 (1948).

Brit. J. Opthal. (1)

L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Opthal. 33, 505 (1949).

Compt. rend. (1)

P. Berger and J. Ségal, Compt. rend. 232, 1241 (1951).

Documenta Ophthalmologica (3)

M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalmologica 4, 23 (1950), pp. 79–81.

Fischer, Bouman, and Ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthalmologica 5–6, 73 (1951).

W. S. Stiles, Documenta Ophthalmologica 3, 138 (1949).
[Crossref]

Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. (2)

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), p. 1516.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), pp. 1525–1532.

J. Exptl. Psychol. (2)

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
[Crossref]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

W. J. Crozier, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (8)

J. Physiol. (3)

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 112, 114 (1951).
[Crossref]

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 114, 435 (1951), p. 439.
[Crossref]

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).

Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) (1)

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 19, 131 (1923–24).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ned. T. Natuurk. (1)

W. S. Stiles, Ned. T. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949).

Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. (2)

S. W. Kravkov, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 210, 781 (1925).
[Crossref]

E. Hering, Pflüger’s Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 519 (1895).

Phys. Rev. (1)

F. L. Tufts, Phys. Rev. 25, 433 (1907).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 787 (1949).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (4)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).

H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 110B, 448 (1932).

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).

Psychol. Monog. (2)

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928), pp. 74, 83.

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928).

Science (3)

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref]

G. Wald, Science,  101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref]

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).
[Crossref]

Sciences (1)

H. Piéron, Sciences, Rev. assoc. franc. avance. sci. 70, 265 (1943).

Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. III (1)

F. Hillebrand, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. III,  98, 70 (1889); Z. Sinnesphysiol. 51, 46 (1920).
[Crossref]

Sitzber. Phys.-Med. Soz. zu Erlangen (1)

K. Gross, Sitzber. Phys.-Med. Soz. zu Erlangen 56/57, 399 (1924/25). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (1)

L. T. Troland, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 947 (1916).
[Crossref]

Trans. Roy Soc. (London) (1)

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) (2)

G. J. Burch, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 191B, 1 (1899).
[Crossref]

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

Z. Physik. (1)

N. T. Federov and V. J. Federova, Z. Physik. 57, 855 (1929).
[Crossref]

Z. Sinnesphysiol. (2)

R. Dittler and Y. Satake, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 240 (1914).

K. Gross, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 215 (1928). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.

Other (12)

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), pp. 79 and 88 ff.
[Crossref]

S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941), p. 203.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (edited by S. S. Stevens) (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 831.

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (D. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1939), Vol. I. p. 962.

E. G. Boring, Sensation and Perception in the History of Experimental Psychology (D. Appleton-Century Company, New York, 1942), pp. 181, 195.

L. T. Troland, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (edited by C. Murchison) (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), p. 667.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947), p. 272.
[Crossref]

L. T. Troland, Nela Park Abstract Bulletin, , 388 (1922).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1929), Vol. II, p. 199.

R. M. Evans, An Introduction to Color (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), pp. 131, 136, 227 ff. See, for example, the discussion of this problem by R. M. Evans. Recognition by him of the need for adequate experimental data to resolve the contradiction was, in fact, responsible for the qualifiers in his statement that the “… sensitivity [of the brightness receptor] to wavelength does not change appreciably as far as is known at the present time.” (p. 136).
[Crossref]

W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision and the Trichromatic Theory (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913), p. 384 ff.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 372.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Threshold data. Dark adaptation. Observer J.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Threshold data. Bright adaptation. Single runs. Observer H.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Foveal sensitivity. Dark adaptation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Foveal sensitivity and adaptation level. Observer H.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Foveal sensitivity and adaptation level. Observer J.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Foveal sensitivity (bright adaptation) and CIE standard luminosity function.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Foveal luminosity curves. Dark and bright adaptation. Experimental and derived. Observer J.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Chromatic functions for primaries of Hering theory. White function not shown. After Judd.