Abstract

The spectral sensitivity of the 1° fovea of the right eye of two practiced observers was measured at 10 mµ intervals from 400 mµ to 700 mµ for the dark-adapted state and for the bright-adapted (10mL), chromatically neutral state. Ten complete luminosity functions were obtained for each observer for each of the specified adaptations. The data of these experiments are intended to provide controls against which to evaluate luminosity data for different chromatic states. A number of inflections and shoulders are found in the functions for both states of adaptation. Moreover, the functions for both observers are shown to undergo a change in form and a displacement from the bright to the dark-adapted state. These changes in the foveal functions, although small in magnitude, are in the same sense as the familiar "Purkinje shift." Alternative theoretical explanations of the data are discussed and analyzed.

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  1. W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision and the Trichromatic Theory (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913), p. 384 ff.
  2. S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 231 (1930).
  3. E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 24, 168 (1940).
  4. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 372.
  5. G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 114 (1945).
  6. L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1929), Vol. II, p. 199.
  7. R. M. Evans, An Introduction to Color (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), pp. 131, 136, 227 ff. See, for example, the discussion of this problem by R. M. Evans. Recognition by him of the need for adequate experimental data to resolve the contradiction was, in fact, responsible for the qualifiers in his statement that the ". . . sensitivity [of the brightness receptor] to wavelength does not change appreciably as far as is known at the present time." (p. 136)."
  8. F. L. Tufts, Phys. Rev. 25, 433 (1907).
  9. L. T. Troland, Trans. lium. Eng. Soc. 11, 947 (1916).
  10. H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) ilOB, 448 (1932).
  11. H. Piéron, Sciences, Rev. assoc. franc. avance. sci. 70, 265 (1943).
  12. G. J. Burch, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 191B, 1 (1899).
  13. L. T. Troland and C. H. Langford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 409 (1922).
  14. W. F. Hamilton and H. Laurens, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 569 (1923).
  15. N. T. Federov and V. J. Federova, Z. Physik. 57, 855 (1929).
  16. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).
  17. W. S. Stiles, Documenta Ophthalmologica 3, 138 (1949).
  18. L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 3 (1922).
  19. L. T. Troland, Nela Park Abstract Bulletin, Abstract No. 79, 388 (1922).
  20. H. Pidron, Année Psychol. 40, 1 (1939).
  21. R. Dittler and Y. Satake, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 240 (1914).
  22. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).
  23. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
  24. W. J. Crozier, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).
  25. W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).
  26. E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).
  27. S. W. Kravkov, Pflüger's Arch. ges. Physiol. 210, 781 (1925).
  28. A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), p. 1516.
  29. K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 19, 131 (1923–24).
  30. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).
  31. G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
  32. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949).
  33. L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 787 (1949).
  34. Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).
  35. A. E. Jacobsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 442 (1948).
  36. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 945 (1949).
  37. W. S. Stiles, Ned. T. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949). 38 L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928). 38 H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).
  38. L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928).
  39. H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).
  40. L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 112, 114 (1951).
  41. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947), p. 272.
  42. R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 114, 435 (1951), p. 439.
  43. M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalmologica 4, 23 (1950), pp. 79-81.
  44. Fischer, Bouman, and Ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthalmologica 5-6, 73 (1951).
  45. A. Pflüger, Ann. Phys. 9(4), 185 (1902). In this context it may be noted that Pflüger, in his early study of the scotopic luminosity function, reported marked irregularities in the measured curves for all his observers. See also reference 42a.
  46. P. Berger and J. Segal, Compt. rend. 232, 1241 (1951).
  47. E. G. Boring, Sensation and Perception in the History of Experimental Psychology (D. Appleton-Century Company, New York, 1942), pp. 181, 195.
  48. L. T. Troland, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (edited by C. Murchison) (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), p. 667.
  49. G. Wald, Science, 101, 653 (1945).
  50. W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (D. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1939), Vol. I. p. 962.
  51. A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12,1499 (1931), pp. 1525-1532.
  52. L. L. Sloan, Psychol Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928), pp. 74, 83.
  53. E. Hering, Pflüger's Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 519 (1895).
  54. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), pp. 79 and 88 ff.
  55. L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).
  56. K. Gross, Sitzber. Phys.-Med. Soz. zu Erlangen 56/57, 399 (1924/25). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.
  57. K. Gross, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 215 (1928). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.
  58. W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).
  59. S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941), p. 203.
  60. F. Hillebrand, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. Ill, 98, 70 (1889); Z. Sinnesphysiol. 51, 46 (1920).
  61. W. M. Venable, Am. J. Physiol Optics 5, 22 (1924). A similar analysis of the luminosity function.
  62. D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (edited by S. S. Stevens) (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 831.
  63. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).
  64. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).
  65. H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthal. 32, 793 (1948).
  66. J. Segal, Ann. D'Oculistique 184, 289 (1951). A similar hypothesis to that of Dartnall, developed independently.
  67. L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Opthal. 33, 505 (1949).

Abney, W.

W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision and the Trichromatic Theory (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913), p. 384 ff.

Evans, R. M.

R. M. Evans, An Introduction to Color (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), pp. 131, 136, 227 ff. See, for example, the discussion of this problem by R. M. Evans. Recognition by him of the need for adequate experimental data to resolve the contradiction was, in fact, responsible for the qualifiers in his statement that the ". . . sensitivity [of the brightness receptor] to wavelength does not change appreciably as far as is known at the present time." (p. 136)."

Piéron, H.

H. Piéron, Sciences, Rev. assoc. franc. avance. sci. 70, 265 (1943).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 372.

Abney, W.

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

Berger, P.

P. Berger and J. Segal, Compt. rend. 232, 1241 (1951).

Boring, E. G.

E. G. Boring, Sensation and Perception in the History of Experimental Psychology (D. Appleton-Century Company, New York, 1942), pp. 181, 195.

Bouman, M. A.

M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalmologica 4, 23 (1950), pp. 79-81.

Burch, G. J.

G. J. Burch, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 191B, 1 (1899).

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).

Crozier, W. J.

W. J. Crozier, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthal. 32, 793 (1948).

Dittler, R.

R. Dittler and Y. Satake, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 240 (1914).

Doesschate, Ten

Fischer, Bouman, and Ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthalmologica 5-6, 73 (1951).

Duke-Elder, W. S.

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (D. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1939), Vol. I. p. 962.

Federov, N. T.

N. T. Federov and V. J. Federova, Z. Physik. 57, 855 (1929).

Federova, V. J.

N. T. Federov and V. J. Federova, Z. Physik. 57, 855 (1929).

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 114 (1945).

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 19, 131 (1923–24).

Graham, C. H.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947), p. 272.

Gross, K.

K. Gross, Sitzber. Phys.-Med. Soz. zu Erlangen 56/57, 399 (1924/25). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.

K. Gross, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 215 (1928). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.

Hamilton, W. F.

W. F. Hamilton and H. Laurens, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 569 (1923).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 231 (1930).

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Pflüger's Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 519 (1895).

Hillebrand, F.

F. Hillebrand, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. Ill, 98, 70 (1889); Z. Sinnesphysiol. 51, 46 (1920).

Hsia, Y.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

Jacobsen, A. E.

A. E. Jacobsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 442 (1948).

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (edited by S. S. Stevens) (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 831.

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 945 (1949).

Kohlrausch, A.

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12,1499 (1931), pp. 1525-1532.

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), p. 1516.

Kravkov, S. W.

S. W. Kravkov, Pflüger's Arch. ges. Physiol. 210, 781 (1925).

Langford, C. H.

L. T. Troland and C. H. Langford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 409 (1922).

Laurens, H.

W. F. Hamilton and H. Laurens, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 569 (1923).

Ludvigh, E.

E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 24, 168 (1940).

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

McCarthy, E. F.

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

Pflüger, A.

A. Pflüger, Ann. Phys. 9(4), 185 (1902). In this context it may be noted that Pflüger, in his early study of the scotopic luminosity function, reported marked irregularities in the measured curves for all his observers. See also reference 42a.

Piéron, H.

H. Pidron, Année Psychol. 40, 1 (1939).

Polyak, S.

S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941), p. 203.

Roaf, H. E.

H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) ilOB, 448 (1932).

Satake, Y.

R. Dittler and Y. Satake, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 240 (1914).

Ségal, J.

P. Berger and J. Segal, Compt. rend. 232, 1241 (1951).

J. Segal, Ann. D'Oculistique 184, 289 (1951). A similar hypothesis to that of Dartnall, developed independently.

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, Psychol Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928), pp. 74, 83.

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).

W. S. Stiles, Ned. T. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949). 38 L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928). 38 H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).

W. S. Stiles, Documenta Ophthalmologica 3, 138 (1949).

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 787 (1949).

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 112, 114 (1951).

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).

L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Opthal. 33, 505 (1949).

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (edited by C. Murchison) (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), p. 667.

L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 3 (1922).

L. T. Troland, Nela Park Abstract Bulletin, Abstract No. 79, 388 (1922).

L. T. Troland and C. H. Langford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 409 (1922).

L. T. Troland, Trans. lium. Eng. Soc. 11, 947 (1916).

L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1929), Vol. II, p. 199.

Tufts, F. L.

F. L. Tufts, Phys. Rev. 25, 433 (1907).

Tyndall, E. P. T.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 19, 131 (1923–24).

Venable, W. M.

W. M. Venable, Am. J. Physiol Optics 5, 22 (1924). A similar analysis of the luminosity function.

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).

G. Wald, Science, 101, 653 (1945).

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).

Watson, W.

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 114, 435 (1951), p. 439.

Weaver, K. S.

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949).

Wright, W. D.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), pp. 79 and 88 ff.

Other (67)

W. Abney, Researches in Colour Vision and the Trichromatic Theory (Longmans, Green and Company, London, 1913), p. 384 ff.

S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 231 (1930).

E. Ludvigh, Arch. Ophthal. 24, 168 (1940).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 372.

G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 114 (1945).

L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1929), Vol. II, p. 199.

R. M. Evans, An Introduction to Color (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948), pp. 131, 136, 227 ff. See, for example, the discussion of this problem by R. M. Evans. Recognition by him of the need for adequate experimental data to resolve the contradiction was, in fact, responsible for the qualifiers in his statement that the ". . . sensitivity [of the brightness receptor] to wavelength does not change appreciably as far as is known at the present time." (p. 136)."

F. L. Tufts, Phys. Rev. 25, 433 (1907).

L. T. Troland, Trans. lium. Eng. Soc. 11, 947 (1916).

H. E. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) ilOB, 448 (1932).

H. Piéron, Sciences, Rev. assoc. franc. avance. sci. 70, 265 (1943).

G. J. Burch, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 191B, 1 (1899).

L. T. Troland and C. H. Langford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 409 (1922).

W. F. Hamilton and H. Laurens, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 569 (1923).

N. T. Federov and V. J. Federova, Z. Physik. 57, 855 (1929).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).

W. S. Stiles, Documenta Ophthalmologica 3, 138 (1949).

L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 3 (1922).

L. T. Troland, Nela Park Abstract Bulletin, Abstract No. 79, 388 (1922).

H. Pidron, Année Psychol. 40, 1 (1939).

R. Dittler and Y. Satake, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 48, 240 (1914).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 521 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

W. J. Crozier, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 87 (1950).

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthal. 20, 37 (1938).

S. W. Kravkov, Pflüger's Arch. ges. Physiol. 210, 781 (1925).

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12, 1499 (1931), p. 1516.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Standards (U. S.) 19, 131 (1923–24).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 113B, 496 (1933).

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949).

L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 787 (1949).

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).

A. E. Jacobsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 442 (1948).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 945 (1949).

W. S. Stiles, Ned. T. Natuurk. 15, 125 (1949). 38 L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928). 38 H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928).

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 131B, 340 (1943).

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 112, 114 (1951).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947), p. 272.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 114, 435 (1951), p. 439.

M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalmologica 4, 23 (1950), pp. 79-81.

Fischer, Bouman, and Ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophthalmologica 5-6, 73 (1951).

A. Pflüger, Ann. Phys. 9(4), 185 (1902). In this context it may be noted that Pflüger, in his early study of the scotopic luminosity function, reported marked irregularities in the measured curves for all his observers. See also reference 42a.

P. Berger and J. Segal, Compt. rend. 232, 1241 (1951).

E. G. Boring, Sensation and Perception in the History of Experimental Psychology (D. Appleton-Century Company, New York, 1942), pp. 181, 195.

L. T. Troland, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (edited by C. Murchison) (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), p. 667.

G. Wald, Science, 101, 653 (1945).

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (D. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1939), Vol. I. p. 962.

A. Kohlrausch, Handb. Norm. Path. Physiol. 12,1499 (1931), pp. 1525-1532.

L. L. Sloan, Psychol Monog. 38, No. 1, 1 (1928), pp. 74, 83.

E. Hering, Pflüger's Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 519 (1895).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), pp. 79 and 88 ff.

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).

K. Gross, Sitzber. Phys.-Med. Soz. zu Erlangen 56/57, 399 (1924/25). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.

K. Gross, Z. Sinnesphysiol. 59, 215 (1928). Summary of many of the earlier experiments.

W. Abney and W. Watson, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 216A, 91 (1916).

S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941), p. 203.

F. Hillebrand, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Klasse, Abt. Ill, 98, 70 (1889); Z. Sinnesphysiol. 51, 46 (1920).

W. M. Venable, Am. J. Physiol Optics 5, 22 (1924). A similar analysis of the luminosity function.

D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (edited by S. S. Stevens) (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 831.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Science 114, 199 (1951).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Exptl. Psychol. 41, 455 (1951).

H. J. A. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthal. 32, 793 (1948).

J. Segal, Ann. D'Oculistique 184, 289 (1951). A similar hypothesis to that of Dartnall, developed independently.

L. C. Thomson, Brit. J. Opthal. 33, 505 (1949).

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