Abstract

The variations in the hues and saturations of colors, when seen under different intensities of adapting light, have been measured by the binocular matching technique, using a 1° field. The results were very similar to those obtained using a 20° field. The theoretical implications are discussed.

© 1953 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. W. G. Hunt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 190 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. W. Burnham, Am. J. Psychol. 64, 521 (1951); Am. J. Psychol. 65, 27 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. König, Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1894); E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945); L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. McL. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).
  5. W. E. K. Middleton and E. G. Mayo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 116 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W. R. J. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 684 (1951).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton and Company, Limited, London, 1946), p. 81, etc.
  8. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).
  9. R. T. Brooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 1010 (1951).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. J. Lythgoe, Special Reports, (1932).
  11. Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).Note: In their work, the exit pupil was fixed at 112 sq mm, whereas in the present author’s work the exit pupil was allowed to vary (see Table I).
  12. R. W. G. Hunt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 203 (1949); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 362 (1950).
    [Crossref]

1952 (2)

1951 (3)

1949 (1)

R. W. G. Hunt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 203 (1949); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 362 (1950).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).Note: In their work, the exit pupil was fixed at 112 sq mm, whereas in the present author’s work the exit pupil was allowed to vary (see Table I).

1931 (1)

D. McL. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).

1894 (1)

A. König, Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1894); E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945); L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).
[Crossref]

Brooke, R. T.

Brown, W. R. J.

Burnham, R. W.

R. W. Burnham, Am. J. Psychol. 64, 521 (1951); Am. J. Psychol. 65, 27 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

Hecht,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).Note: In their work, the exit pupil was fixed at 112 sq mm, whereas in the present author’s work the exit pupil was allowed to vary (see Table I).

Hunt, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Hunt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 190 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. G. Hunt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 203 (1949); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 362 (1950).
[Crossref]

König, A.

A. König, Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1894); E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945); L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).
[Crossref]

Lythgoe, R. J.

R. J. Lythgoe, Special Reports, (1932).

Mayo, E. G.

Middleton, W. E. K.

Patt,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).Note: In their work, the exit pupil was fixed at 112 sq mm, whereas in the present author’s work the exit pupil was allowed to vary (see Table I).

Peskin,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).Note: In their work, the exit pupil was fixed at 112 sq mm, whereas in the present author’s work the exit pupil was allowed to vary (see Table I).

Purdy, D. McL.

D. McL. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton and Company, Limited, London, 1946), p. 81, etc.

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

R. W. Burnham, Am. J. Psychol. 64, 521 (1951); Am. J. Psychol. 65, 27 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brit. J. Psychol. (1)

D. McL. Purdy, Brit. J. Psychol. 21, 283 (1931).

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).Note: In their work, the exit pupil was fixed at 112 sq mm, whereas in the present author’s work the exit pupil was allowed to vary (see Table I).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

R. W. G. Hunt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62B, 203 (1949); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 362 (1950).
[Crossref]

Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1)

A. König, Sitzber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1894); E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945); L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. J. Lythgoe, Special Reports, (1932).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton and Company, Limited, London, 1946), p. 81, etc.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fields of view used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Binocular matches obtained by the author on the eight different colors when the left eye was adapted in turn to the seven different luminance levels, while the right eye was kept adapted to level C. All the results shown are for reflectance 5 (test-color luminance equal to adapting luminance). Field size 1°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The author’s results for the same conditions as in Fig. 2, but for 20° field size.

Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4(a)

Binocular matches when the left eye was adapted to level A (100 candles/sq ft), and the right eye to level C (0.75 candle/sq ft). Numbers indicate the lowest, and arrowheads the highest, reflectances that could be matched. Author’s results for 1° field.

Fig. 4(b)
Fig. 4(b)

Same as Fig. 4(a), but with the left eye adapted to level B (6 candles/sq ft).

Fig. 4(c)
Fig. 4(c)

Same as Fig. 4(a), but with both eyes adapted to level C (0.75 candle/sq ft).

Fig. 4(d)
Fig. 4(d)

Same as Fig. 4(a), but with the left eye adapted to level D (0.25 candle/sq ft).

Fig. 4(e)
Fig. 4(e)

Same as Fig. 4(a), but with the left eye adapted to level E (0.03 candle/sq ft).

Fig. 4(f)
Fig. 4(f)

Same as Fig. 4(a), but with the left eye adapted to level F (0.007 candle/sq ft).

Fig. 4(z)
Fig. 4(z)

Same as Fig. 4(a), but with the left eye adapted to level Z (zero luminance).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Hypothetical response curves for cone and rod mechanisms. (a) Dark-adapted. (b) Light-adapted.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Response curve with increasing slope.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Upper (a). Some of Lythgoe’s results for the visual acuity of a test stimulus having the same luminance as its surround. Lower (b) Some of the results of Hecht, Peskin, and Patt for the luminance discrimination of a 12° test stimulus with a 40° surround of equal luminance. In both cases, the luminance levels A, B, C, etc., used in this work have been marked on the log I axis.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Description of adaptation levels used.