Abstract

The effects of artificial aniseikonic errors on the moving-rod type of depth-perception test were studied in two subjects. Aniseikonia in the horizontal meridian produced a constant error in the setting of the movable rod whose direction and magnitude varied with the direction and magnitude of the aniseikonia. In the Howard-Dolman test the constant errors were only one-third to one-half those predicted from the binocular disparity. In a modified test in which opposing monocular cues were eliminated, the settings showed the expected constant errors of about 65 mm for each one percent difference in the size of the ocular images. The mean variation about the average position of subjective equidistance showed considerable day-to-day variation.

© 1953 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. J. Howard, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2, 656 (1919).
  2. H. J. Howard, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 17, 401 (1919).
  3. W. M. Rowland and L. S. Rowland, U.S.A.F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas. Project 238, (1944).
  4. Hirsch, Horowitz, Walker, and Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 333 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. H. Ripple and M. R. Wilson, U.S.A.F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project 21–24–010 (1950).
  6. K. N. Ogle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 20 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. N. Ogle and A. Ames, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 137 (1943).
  8. K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1950), p. 77.
    [Crossref]
  9. H. M. Burian and K. N. Ogle, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 28, 735 (1945).
  10. F. W. Weymouth and M. J. Hirsch, Am. J. Psychol. 58, 379 (1945).
  11. (a)M. J. Hirsch, Am. J. Optom. 24, 472 (1947); (b)M. J. Hirsch and F. W. Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 210 (1948).
    [Crossref]

1948 (1)

Hirsch, Horowitz, Walker, and Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 333 (1948).
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

(a)M. J. Hirsch, Am. J. Optom. 24, 472 (1947); (b)M. J. Hirsch and F. W. Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 210 (1948).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

1945 (2)

H. M. Burian and K. N. Ogle, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 28, 735 (1945).

F. W. Weymouth and M. J. Hirsch, Am. J. Psychol. 58, 379 (1945).

1943 (1)

1919 (2)

H. J. Howard, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2, 656 (1919).

H. J. Howard, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 17, 401 (1919).

Ames, A.

Burian, H. M.

H. M. Burian and K. N. Ogle, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 28, 735 (1945).

Hirsch,

Hirsch, Horowitz, Walker, and Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 333 (1948).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M. J.

(a)M. J. Hirsch, Am. J. Optom. 24, 472 (1947); (b)M. J. Hirsch and F. W. Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 210 (1948).
[Crossref]

F. W. Weymouth and M. J. Hirsch, Am. J. Psychol. 58, 379 (1945).

Horowitz,

Hirsch, Horowitz, Walker, and Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 333 (1948).
[Crossref]

Howard, H. J.

H. J. Howard, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2, 656 (1919).

H. J. Howard, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 17, 401 (1919).

Ogle, K. N.

K. N. Ogle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 20 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Burian and K. N. Ogle, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 28, 735 (1945).

K. N. Ogle and A. Ames, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 137 (1943).

K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1950), p. 77.
[Crossref]

Ripple, P. H.

P. H. Ripple and M. R. Wilson, U.S.A.F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project 21–24–010 (1950).

Rowland, L. S.

W. M. Rowland and L. S. Rowland, U.S.A.F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas. Project 238, (1944).

Rowland, W. M.

W. M. Rowland and L. S. Rowland, U.S.A.F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas. Project 238, (1944).

Walker,

Hirsch, Horowitz, Walker, and Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 333 (1948).
[Crossref]

Weymouth,

Hirsch, Horowitz, Walker, and Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 333 (1948).
[Crossref]

Weymouth, F. W.

F. W. Weymouth and M. J. Hirsch, Am. J. Psychol. 58, 379 (1945).

Wilson, M. R.

P. H. Ripple and M. R. Wilson, U.S.A.F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project 21–24–010 (1950).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

H. J. Howard, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2, 656 (1919).

H. M. Burian and K. N. Ogle, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 28, 735 (1945).

Am. J. Optom. (1)

(a)M. J. Hirsch, Am. J. Optom. 24, 472 (1947); (b)M. J. Hirsch and F. W. Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 210 (1948).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

F. W. Weymouth and M. J. Hirsch, Am. J. Psychol. 58, 379 (1945).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

Hirsch, Horowitz, Walker, and Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 39, 333 (1948).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. (1)

H. J. Howard, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 17, 401 (1919).

Other (3)

W. M. Rowland and L. S. Rowland, U.S.A.F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas. Project 238, (1944).

P. H. Ripple and M. R. Wilson, U.S.A.F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project 21–24–010 (1950).

K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1950), p. 77.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Approximate relationship between magnification of the ocular image of the right eye and shift in the position of subjective equidistance of the rods. See text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Appearance of the superimposed images of the apertures before the right and left eyes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between aniseikonia measured on the space-eikonometer and computed from the constant-error scores. Subject A.A.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between aniseikonia measured on the space-eikonometer and computed from the constant-error scores. Subject L.S.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the aniseikonic errors measured by three tests when a 0.9 percent lens was worn only during the testing period (circles) and when it was worn continuously (crosses).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean-variation scores of subject L.S. in repeated tests. Scores obtained during continuous wearing of a size lens are indicated by crosses; those obtained when there was no artificial aniseikonia are shown by circles.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of aniseikonic errors measured directly on space eikonometer and derived from CE scores. Fitover size lens worn only during tests.a

Tables Icon

Table II Comparison of aniseikonic errors measured directly on space eikonometer and derived from CE scores. Average of measures made during continuous wearing of fitover lens. Subject L.S.a

Equations (1)

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A = E ( 100 p / d s ) .