Abstract

Some studies of 1941–1942 indicated that adaptation under red light was faster than in darkness. A recent (May 26, 1952) research report originating from the Naval Air Station at Pensacola seems to show a facilitative effect of red light on dark adaptation and has renewed interest in this problem. Some of the earlier data purporting to show this effect, additional material previously unpublished, and also new studies made at Yale by the method of simultaneous differential monocular adaptation are here presented and discussed. Adaptation goggles were used for 25 min under illumination of 8 mL. The filter over one eye was a glass disk made of Corning No. 2403, deep red, 3.5 percent photopic transmission, over the other eye an opaque cardboard disk which excluded all light. Dark-adaptation thresholds (Hecht-Schlaer adaptometer) violet light (Corning 5513), measured alternately on the two eyes showed for 16 college student subjects lower values, i.e., increased light sensitiveness for the eyes adapted in darkness. In the period 6 min after removing the goggles the mean threshold difference between results for red and opaque procedures in the first test was −0.153 log μμL, <P=0.01; in the second test with the goggles reversed on the two eyes the mean difference favoring the opaque side was −0.182 log I, μμL, <P=0.01. The earlier and later results are not easily harmonized. The author argues in favor of the monocular method as an appropriate one for the study of this problem.

© 1953 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Y. Solandt, Proc. Natl. Research Council Can. Assoc. Comm. Aviation Med. Research. (October4, 1940), p. 2; and Hartline, McDonald, and Millikan, Natl. Research Council U. S. Comm. Aviation Med. Rept. No. 4 (March, 1941), p. 3, mimeo.
  2. This Yale research and development had no military or governmental contract supporting it. We regarded the results as worthy of confidential status and proceeded accordingly making no publication at the time. While in England in May, 1942, on a mission for OSRD the writer first learned that the U. S. Navy Dept. had issued an unclassified report describing red dark-adaptation goggles, and the technique of their use.See “The use of the eyes at night,” Liljencrantz, Swanson, and Carson, Night Vision Board, Navy Dept. Bur. Med. and Surg.Washington, D. C. (April15, 1942), pp. 1–23, 6 Figs. mimeographed; published also in U. S. Naval Institute Proc. (June, 1942).
  3. W. R. Miles, “Red goggles for producing dark adaptation,” Federation Proceedings, Vol.  2, No. 2, June, 1943, pp. 109–115, part of Symposium on the Special Senses in Relation to Military Problems, Hallowell Davis, Chairman, pp. 107–129.
  4. Admiralty Research Laboratory (Great Britain) “Dark adaptation following exposure to red, orange and white light for different times and at different intensities.” , (November19, 1942), 4 pages, 4 tables, and 10 figures.
  5. “A facilitative effect of red light on dark adaptation.” Report by Samuel C. McLaughlin, MSC, USN, Research Report. U. S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola, Florida (May26, 1952), 7 pages, and 2 tables, unclassified.
  6. The threshold determinations reported here for 1941 and 1942 were all taken by the same skilled assistant, Mrs. Marion R. Chapanis, whose cooperation I gratefully acknowledge.
  7. See reference 3 for full details. Reprints are available.
  8. Admiralty Research Laboratory (Great Britain) “Effect of red, orange and white light on rates of dark adaptation.” , (October9, 1942), 4 pages, 8 tables, and 3 figures.
  9. The threshold determinations reported here for 1943 were all taken on the Hecht-Schlaer adaptometer No. 8 by Mrs. Eleanore F. Hubbard who had 3 months training and experience with the adaptometer in other experiments before beginning this reported series on monocular adaptation. Mrs. Hubbard’s assistance is gratefully acknowledged.
  10. W. M. Rowland and L. L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 601–604, (1944); S. Hecht and Yun Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261–267, (1945); and Z. J. Schoen and F. L. Dimmick, U. S. Naval Med. Lab., U. S. Naval Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut (April9, 1948) .
    [CrossRef]
  11. About 7 percent of the threshold values entered in Tables V and VI are based on one or two measurements made in a 6-min period.
  12. This represents the time spent in the light adaptation room, an additional 5 min were required before the light in the adaptometer room was turned off and the goggles were removed.
  13. See reference 3, page 113.
  14. J. L. Kennedy and R. C. Travis, J. Comp. Physiol Psychol. 41, 203–210, (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Chapanis, How We See: A Summary of Basic Principles, pp. 3–60, (see especially pp. 20–22). Chapter 1, in Part I, “General visual problems” in “Human factors in undersea warfare,” prepared by the Panel on Psychology and Physiology, Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council, Washington, D. C. Pp. x+541, 1949.

1948 (1)

J. L. Kennedy and R. C. Travis, J. Comp. Physiol Psychol. 41, 203–210, (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1944 (1)

1943 (1)

W. R. Miles, “Red goggles for producing dark adaptation,” Federation Proceedings, Vol.  2, No. 2, June, 1943, pp. 109–115, part of Symposium on the Special Senses in Relation to Military Problems, Hallowell Davis, Chairman, pp. 107–129.

W. R. Miles, “Red goggles for producing dark adaptation,” Federation Proceedings, Vol.  2, No. 2, June, 1943, pp. 109–115, part of Symposium on the Special Senses in Relation to Military Problems, Hallowell Davis, Chairman, pp. 107–129.

1940 (1)

D. Y. Solandt, Proc. Natl. Research Council Can. Assoc. Comm. Aviation Med. Research. (October4, 1940), p. 2; and Hartline, McDonald, and Millikan, Natl. Research Council U. S. Comm. Aviation Med. Rept. No. 4 (March, 1941), p. 3, mimeo.

Carson,

This Yale research and development had no military or governmental contract supporting it. We regarded the results as worthy of confidential status and proceeded accordingly making no publication at the time. While in England in May, 1942, on a mission for OSRD the writer first learned that the U. S. Navy Dept. had issued an unclassified report describing red dark-adaptation goggles, and the technique of their use.See “The use of the eyes at night,” Liljencrantz, Swanson, and Carson, Night Vision Board, Navy Dept. Bur. Med. and Surg.Washington, D. C. (April15, 1942), pp. 1–23, 6 Figs. mimeographed; published also in U. S. Naval Institute Proc. (June, 1942).

Chapanis, A.

A. Chapanis, How We See: A Summary of Basic Principles, pp. 3–60, (see especially pp. 20–22). Chapter 1, in Part I, “General visual problems” in “Human factors in undersea warfare,” prepared by the Panel on Psychology and Physiology, Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council, Washington, D. C. Pp. x+541, 1949.

Davis, Hallowell

W. R. Miles, “Red goggles for producing dark adaptation,” Federation Proceedings, Vol.  2, No. 2, June, 1943, pp. 109–115, part of Symposium on the Special Senses in Relation to Military Problems, Hallowell Davis, Chairman, pp. 107–129.

Kennedy, J. L.

J. L. Kennedy and R. C. Travis, J. Comp. Physiol Psychol. 41, 203–210, (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liljencrantz,

This Yale research and development had no military or governmental contract supporting it. We regarded the results as worthy of confidential status and proceeded accordingly making no publication at the time. While in England in May, 1942, on a mission for OSRD the writer first learned that the U. S. Navy Dept. had issued an unclassified report describing red dark-adaptation goggles, and the technique of their use.See “The use of the eyes at night,” Liljencrantz, Swanson, and Carson, Night Vision Board, Navy Dept. Bur. Med. and Surg.Washington, D. C. (April15, 1942), pp. 1–23, 6 Figs. mimeographed; published also in U. S. Naval Institute Proc. (June, 1942).

McLaughlin, Samuel C.

“A facilitative effect of red light on dark adaptation.” Report by Samuel C. McLaughlin, MSC, USN, Research Report. U. S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola, Florida (May26, 1952), 7 pages, and 2 tables, unclassified.

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles, “Red goggles for producing dark adaptation,” Federation Proceedings, Vol.  2, No. 2, June, 1943, pp. 109–115, part of Symposium on the Special Senses in Relation to Military Problems, Hallowell Davis, Chairman, pp. 107–129.

Rowland, W. M.

Sloan, L. L.

Solandt, D. Y.

D. Y. Solandt, Proc. Natl. Research Council Can. Assoc. Comm. Aviation Med. Research. (October4, 1940), p. 2; and Hartline, McDonald, and Millikan, Natl. Research Council U. S. Comm. Aviation Med. Rept. No. 4 (March, 1941), p. 3, mimeo.

Swanson,

This Yale research and development had no military or governmental contract supporting it. We regarded the results as worthy of confidential status and proceeded accordingly making no publication at the time. While in England in May, 1942, on a mission for OSRD the writer first learned that the U. S. Navy Dept. had issued an unclassified report describing red dark-adaptation goggles, and the technique of their use.See “The use of the eyes at night,” Liljencrantz, Swanson, and Carson, Night Vision Board, Navy Dept. Bur. Med. and Surg.Washington, D. C. (April15, 1942), pp. 1–23, 6 Figs. mimeographed; published also in U. S. Naval Institute Proc. (June, 1942).

Travis, R. C.

J. L. Kennedy and R. C. Travis, J. Comp. Physiol Psychol. 41, 203–210, (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federation Proceedings (1)

W. R. Miles, “Red goggles for producing dark adaptation,” Federation Proceedings, Vol.  2, No. 2, June, 1943, pp. 109–115, part of Symposium on the Special Senses in Relation to Military Problems, Hallowell Davis, Chairman, pp. 107–129.

J. Comp. Physiol Psychol. (1)

J. L. Kennedy and R. C. Travis, J. Comp. Physiol Psychol. 41, 203–210, (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Proc. Natl. Research Council Can. Assoc. Comm. Aviation Med. Research (1)

D. Y. Solandt, Proc. Natl. Research Council Can. Assoc. Comm. Aviation Med. Research. (October4, 1940), p. 2; and Hartline, McDonald, and Millikan, Natl. Research Council U. S. Comm. Aviation Med. Rept. No. 4 (March, 1941), p. 3, mimeo.

Other (11)

This Yale research and development had no military or governmental contract supporting it. We regarded the results as worthy of confidential status and proceeded accordingly making no publication at the time. While in England in May, 1942, on a mission for OSRD the writer first learned that the U. S. Navy Dept. had issued an unclassified report describing red dark-adaptation goggles, and the technique of their use.See “The use of the eyes at night,” Liljencrantz, Swanson, and Carson, Night Vision Board, Navy Dept. Bur. Med. and Surg.Washington, D. C. (April15, 1942), pp. 1–23, 6 Figs. mimeographed; published also in U. S. Naval Institute Proc. (June, 1942).

A. Chapanis, How We See: A Summary of Basic Principles, pp. 3–60, (see especially pp. 20–22). Chapter 1, in Part I, “General visual problems” in “Human factors in undersea warfare,” prepared by the Panel on Psychology and Physiology, Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council, Washington, D. C. Pp. x+541, 1949.

Admiralty Research Laboratory (Great Britain) “Dark adaptation following exposure to red, orange and white light for different times and at different intensities.” , (November19, 1942), 4 pages, 4 tables, and 10 figures.

“A facilitative effect of red light on dark adaptation.” Report by Samuel C. McLaughlin, MSC, USN, Research Report. U. S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola, Florida (May26, 1952), 7 pages, and 2 tables, unclassified.

The threshold determinations reported here for 1941 and 1942 were all taken by the same skilled assistant, Mrs. Marion R. Chapanis, whose cooperation I gratefully acknowledge.

See reference 3 for full details. Reprints are available.

Admiralty Research Laboratory (Great Britain) “Effect of red, orange and white light on rates of dark adaptation.” , (October9, 1942), 4 pages, 8 tables, and 3 figures.

The threshold determinations reported here for 1943 were all taken on the Hecht-Schlaer adaptometer No. 8 by Mrs. Eleanore F. Hubbard who had 3 months training and experience with the adaptometer in other experiments before beginning this reported series on monocular adaptation. Mrs. Hubbard’s assistance is gratefully acknowledged.

About 7 percent of the threshold values entered in Tables V and VI are based on one or two measurements made in a 6-min period.

This represents the time spent in the light adaptation room, an additional 5 min were required before the light in the adaptometer room was turned off and the goggles were removed.

See reference 3, page 113.

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Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table I Re-analysis of first data secured in 1941 on effectiveness of red goggles as an alternate technique for securing dark adaptation. This table of eight paired replicates for terminal thresholds to violet lighta includes some data not previously published (reference 3).

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Table II Analysis of red-goggle adaptation data secured in 1941 but not previously published. The conditions were the same as those described for the 8 pairs (Table I) except that pre-adaption to 1500-mL light was not used as a part of the routine.a

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Table III Paired replicates for terminal dark-adaptation thresholds to violet light after use of red goggles versus darkness routine.a

Tables Icon

Table IV Paired replicates for comparative monocular dark-adaptation thresholds after wearing a red goggle over the left eye and a blue goggle over the right eye for 30 minutes. Values given in log micromicrolamberts.a

Tables Icon

Table V Paired replicates for comparative monocular dark-adaptation thresholds after wearing a red goggle over the left eye and an opaque screen over the right eye for 30 minutes. Values given in log micromicrolamberts.a

Tables Icon

Table VI Paired replicates for comparative monocular dark-adaptation thresholds after wearing a red goggle over the right eye and an opaque screen over the left eye for 30 minutes. Values given in log micromicrolamberts.a