Abstract

The dark current and signal/noise characteristics of an RCA 1P21 and an E.M.I. VX5031 photomultiplier have been compared from the point of view of their suitability for photoelectric Raman spectroscopy. The construction of a simple apparatus for the refrigeration of the RCA tube to liquid oxygen temperature is described. It is found that at low temperatures the noise associated with the dark current of the photomultiplier is negligible compared with the fluctuations (shot effect) in the photocurrent obtained when recording Raman spectra. Under these conditions the signal-to-noise ratio obtainable for a given rate of scanning of the spectrum depends solely on the square root of the light flux incident upon the photomultiplier, and cannot be improved by further refrigeration of the detector.

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  1. R. W. Engstrom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 420 (1947).
  2. Rank, Pfister, and Coleman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 390 (1942).
  3. Rank, Pfister, and Grimm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 31 (1943).
  4. D. H. Rank and R. V. Wiegand, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 325 (1946).
  5. J. Y. Chien and P. Bender, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 376 (1947).
  6. P. O. Kinell and P. Traynard, Acta Chem. Scand. 2, 193 (1948).
  7. Heigl, Dudenbostel, Black, and Wilson, Anal. Chem. 22, 154 (1950).
  8. M. M. Suschinskii, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 70, 221 (1950).
  9. Stamm, Salzman, and Mariner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 119 (1953).
  10. R. F. Stamm and C. F. Salzman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 127 (1953).
  11. M. Dupeyrat, J. phys. radium 14, 131 (1953).
  12. A. Sommer and W. E. Turk, J. Sci. Instr. 27, 113 (1950).
  13. C. Taylor, J. phys. radium 10, 255 (1949).
  14. R. W. Engstrom (private communication).
  15. R. W. Engstrom, Rev. Sci. Instr. 18, 587 (1947).
  16. Kemp, Jones, and Durkee, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 811 (1952).

Bender, P.

J. Y. Chien and P. Bender, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 376 (1947).

Chien, J. Y.

J. Y. Chien and P. Bender, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 376 (1947).

Dupeyrat, M.

M. Dupeyrat, J. phys. radium 14, 131 (1953).

Engstrom, R. W.

R. W. Engstrom (private communication).

R. W. Engstrom, Rev. Sci. Instr. 18, 587 (1947).

R. W. Engstrom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 420 (1947).

Kinell, P. O.

P. O. Kinell and P. Traynard, Acta Chem. Scand. 2, 193 (1948).

Rank, D. H.

D. H. Rank and R. V. Wiegand, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 325 (1946).

Salzman, C. F.

R. F. Stamm and C. F. Salzman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 127 (1953).

Sommer, A.

A. Sommer and W. E. Turk, J. Sci. Instr. 27, 113 (1950).

Stamm, R. F.

R. F. Stamm and C. F. Salzman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 127 (1953).

Suschinskii, M. M.

M. M. Suschinskii, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 70, 221 (1950).

Taylor, C.

C. Taylor, J. phys. radium 10, 255 (1949).

Traynard, P.

P. O. Kinell and P. Traynard, Acta Chem. Scand. 2, 193 (1948).

Turk, W. E.

A. Sommer and W. E. Turk, J. Sci. Instr. 27, 113 (1950).

Wiegand, R. V.

D. H. Rank and R. V. Wiegand, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 325 (1946).

Other (16)

R. W. Engstrom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 420 (1947).

Rank, Pfister, and Coleman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 390 (1942).

Rank, Pfister, and Grimm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 31 (1943).

D. H. Rank and R. V. Wiegand, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 325 (1946).

J. Y. Chien and P. Bender, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 376 (1947).

P. O. Kinell and P. Traynard, Acta Chem. Scand. 2, 193 (1948).

Heigl, Dudenbostel, Black, and Wilson, Anal. Chem. 22, 154 (1950).

M. M. Suschinskii, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 70, 221 (1950).

Stamm, Salzman, and Mariner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 119 (1953).

R. F. Stamm and C. F. Salzman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 127 (1953).

M. Dupeyrat, J. phys. radium 14, 131 (1953).

A. Sommer and W. E. Turk, J. Sci. Instr. 27, 113 (1950).

C. Taylor, J. phys. radium 10, 255 (1949).

R. W. Engstrom (private communication).

R. W. Engstrom, Rev. Sci. Instr. 18, 587 (1947).

Kemp, Jones, and Durkee, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 811 (1952).

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