Abstract

Times required for the detection of a target on a simulated PPI scope were determined for various scope luminances after different durations of light adaptation to a luminance of 3100 millilamberts. Increased duration of light adaptation results in increased detection time up to a maximum value which varies with scope luminance. In general, detection time decreases with either an increase in target luminance or a decrease in background luminance for a given duration of light adaptation. Within the range of luminances investigated, changes in target luminance result in a greater change in detection time than comparable changes in background luminance. The implication for radar scope viewing after adaptation to a high luminance is that optimum visibility will be obtained with maximum gain and as much negative bias as is possible without appreciable reduction of target luminance.

© 1953 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735 (1941).
  2. Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).
  3. G. Wald and A. B. Clark, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93 (1937).
  4. F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, J. Gen Physiol. 34, 657 (1951).
  5. Simonson, Blankstein, and Carey, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 328 (1946).
    [PubMed]
  6. H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. 92, 406 (1938).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. L. Brown and A. L. Diamond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1143.
  10. S. Hecht, Physiol. Rev. 17, 239 (1937).

1951 (1)

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, J. Gen Physiol. 34, 657 (1951).

1948 (1)

1946 (2)

Simonson, Blankstein, and Carey, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 328 (1946).
[PubMed]

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1941 (1)

C. Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735 (1941).

1938 (1)

K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. 92, 406 (1938).

1937 (3)

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

G. Wald and A. B. Clark, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93 (1937).

S. Hecht, Physiol. Rev. 17, 239 (1937).

Blackwell, H. R.

Blankstein,

Simonson, Blankstein, and Carey, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 328 (1946).
[PubMed]

Brown, J. L.

Carey,

Simonson, Blankstein, and Carey, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 328 (1946).
[PubMed]

Chase,

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

Clark, A. B.

G. Wald and A. B. Clark, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93 (1937).

Craik, K. J. W.

K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. 92, 406 (1938).

Diamond, A. L.

Haig,

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

Haig, C.

C. Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735 (1941).

Hanes, R. M.

Hecht,

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, Physiol. Rev. 17, 239 (1937).

Mote, F. A.

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, J. Gen Physiol. 34, 657 (1951).

Riopelle, A. J.

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, J. Gen Physiol. 34, 657 (1951).

Simonson,

Simonson, Blankstein, and Carey, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 328 (1946).
[PubMed]

Wald, G.

G. Wald and A. B. Clark, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93 (1937).

Williams, S. B.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

Simonson, Blankstein, and Carey, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 328 (1946).
[PubMed]

J. Gen Physiol. (1)

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, J. Gen Physiol. 34, 657 (1951).

J. Gen. Physiol. (3)

C. Haig, J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735 (1941).

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

G. Wald and A. B. Clark, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93 (1937).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Physiol. (1)

K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. 92, 406 (1938).

Physiol. Rev. (1)

S. Hecht, Physiol. Rev. 17, 239 (1937).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Target-detection times for different target and background luminances as a function of duration of adaptation to a luminance of 3100 millilamberts. The number at the top of each set of curves refers to log background luminance. The number at the last datum point of each curve refers to log target luminance. Data for subjects JB and HR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Target-detection times for different background luminances and different light-adaptation durations as a function of target luminance. The number at the last datum point of each curve refers to the duration of light adaptation in seconds. Data for subjects JB and HR.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Target-detection times for different target luminances and different light-adaptation durations as a function of background luminance. The number at the last datum point of each curve refers to the duration of light adaptation in seconds. Data for subjects JB and HR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Target-detection time as a function of contrast, ΔI/I, for four background luminances (indicated by the coding of the datum points) and for four target luminances (indicated by the numbers beside the dashed curves). Duration of light adaptation was 120 seconds. Data for subject JB.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Logarithms of target luminances (millilamberts) employed at each of four background luminances. Detection times were determined after light adaptation to 3100 millilamberts for durations of 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 seconds with each luminance condition.