Abstract

This study reports data on the question as to how precise is stereoscopic depth localization with double images and what is the relationship between that subjective depth and objective depth. Instrumentation was used which permitted a test object to be adjusted relative to a reference object, when both of these were observed in increasing disparity between the images of the two eyes and in increasing peripheral angle. The data show that the precision of the stereoscopic depth seems to decrease exponentially with disparity, becoming very small near the limiting values of disparity for stereopsis. When the test object is adjusted for half the depth of the reference object, and adjusted to be as far in front of the fixation point as the reference is behind, the data show a remarkable validity for a wide range of disparity, until the limiting disparities are approached. Then the stereoscopic depth levels off to a constant value. These results are discussed in relation to the visual processes and spatial localization.

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  1. G. Skubich, Z. psychol. physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 96, 353 (1925).
  2. K. N. Ogle, Arch. Ophth. 48, 50 (1952).
  3. K. N. Ogle, J. Exptl. Psych. 44, 253 (1952).
  4. A. Tschermak and P. Hoefer, Pflugers, Arch. ges. Physiol. 98, 299 (1903).
  5. H. Burian, Arch. Ophthalmol. 136, 172 (1936).
  6. Walther Poppelreuter, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 58, 200 (1911).
  7. R. A. Pfeiffer, Psychol. Studien. 2, 129 (1907).
  8. Anathon Aall, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 49, 108, 161 (1908).
  9. L. N. Gassovsky and N. A. Nikolskaya, Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc. URSS. 38, 15 (1943).
  10. Karl-Friedrich Vilmar, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 117, 242 (1950).
  11. K . N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1950), p. 345.
  12. Armin von Tschermak-Seysenegg, Introduction to Physiological Optics, translated by P. Boeder (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1952), p. 299.
  13. S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1255 (1941).
  14. W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, "Recent evidence for neural mechanisms in vision leading to a general theory of sensory acuity." In Heinrich Kltiver: Visual Mechanisms (The Jacques Cattell Press, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1942), Biological Symposia, Vol. 7, pp. 117–164.
  15. R. Lorente de N6, J. Psychol. u. Neurol. 46, 113 (1934).
  16. J. von Kries, in Helmholtz's Treatise on Physiological Optics, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, New York, 1925), Vol. 3, p. 736.
  17. Quoted by R. A. Pfeiffer, reference 7.
  18. Ewald Hering, Spatial Sense and Movements of the Eye, translated by C. A. Radde (The American Academy of Optometry, Baltimore, Maryland, 1942), p. 78.
  19. L . Heine, Arch. Ophthalmol. 51, 563 (1900).

Aall, Anathon

Anathon Aall, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 49, 108, 161 (1908).

Burian, H.

H. Burian, Arch. Ophthalmol. 136, 172 (1936).

Gassovsky, L. N.

L. N. Gassovsky and N. A. Nikolskaya, Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc. URSS. 38, 15 (1943).

Heine, L .

L . Heine, Arch. Ophthalmol. 51, 563 (1900).

Hering, Ewald

Ewald Hering, Spatial Sense and Movements of the Eye, translated by C. A. Radde (The American Academy of Optometry, Baltimore, Maryland, 1942), p. 78.

Hoefer, P.

A. Tschermak and P. Hoefer, Pflugers, Arch. ges. Physiol. 98, 299 (1903).

Kries, J. von

J. von Kries, in Helmholtz's Treatise on Physiological Optics, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, New York, 1925), Vol. 3, p. 736.

Marshall, W. H.

S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1255 (1941).

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, "Recent evidence for neural mechanisms in vision leading to a general theory of sensory acuity." In Heinrich Kltiver: Visual Mechanisms (The Jacques Cattell Press, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1942), Biological Symposia, Vol. 7, pp. 117–164.

Nikolskaya, N. A.

L. N. Gassovsky and N. A. Nikolskaya, Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc. URSS. 38, 15 (1943).

Nó, R. Lorente de

R. Lorente de N6, J. Psychol. u. Neurol. 46, 113 (1934).

Ogle, K . N.

K . N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1950), p. 345.

Ogle, K. N.

K. N. Ogle, Arch. Ophth. 48, 50 (1952).

K. N. Ogle, J. Exptl. Psych. 44, 253 (1952).

Pfeiffer, R. A.

Quoted by R. A. Pfeiffer, reference 7.

R. A. Pfeiffer, Psychol. Studien. 2, 129 (1907).

Poppelreuter, Walther

Walther Poppelreuter, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 58, 200 (1911).

psychol, Z.

G. Skubich, Z. psychol. physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 96, 353 (1925).

Skubich, G.

G. Skubich, Z. psychol. physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 96, 353 (1925).

Talbot, S. A.

S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1255 (1941).

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, "Recent evidence for neural mechanisms in vision leading to a general theory of sensory acuity." In Heinrich Kltiver: Visual Mechanisms (The Jacques Cattell Press, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1942), Biological Symposia, Vol. 7, pp. 117–164.

Tschermak, A.

A. Tschermak and P. Hoefer, Pflugers, Arch. ges. Physiol. 98, 299 (1903).

Tschermak-Seysenegg, Armin von

Armin von Tschermak-Seysenegg, Introduction to Physiological Optics, translated by P. Boeder (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1952), p. 299.

Vilmar, Karl-Friedrich

Karl-Friedrich Vilmar, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 117, 242 (1950).

Other

G. Skubich, Z. psychol. physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 96, 353 (1925).

K. N. Ogle, Arch. Ophth. 48, 50 (1952).

K. N. Ogle, J. Exptl. Psych. 44, 253 (1952).

A. Tschermak and P. Hoefer, Pflugers, Arch. ges. Physiol. 98, 299 (1903).

H. Burian, Arch. Ophthalmol. 136, 172 (1936).

Walther Poppelreuter, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 58, 200 (1911).

R. A. Pfeiffer, Psychol. Studien. 2, 129 (1907).

Anathon Aall, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 49, 108, 161 (1908).

L. N. Gassovsky and N. A. Nikolskaya, Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc. URSS. 38, 15 (1943).

Karl-Friedrich Vilmar, Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 117, 242 (1950).

K . N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1950), p. 345.

Armin von Tschermak-Seysenegg, Introduction to Physiological Optics, translated by P. Boeder (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1952), p. 299.

S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1255 (1941).

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, "Recent evidence for neural mechanisms in vision leading to a general theory of sensory acuity." In Heinrich Kltiver: Visual Mechanisms (The Jacques Cattell Press, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1942), Biological Symposia, Vol. 7, pp. 117–164.

R. Lorente de N6, J. Psychol. u. Neurol. 46, 113 (1934).

J. von Kries, in Helmholtz's Treatise on Physiological Optics, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, New York, 1925), Vol. 3, p. 736.

Quoted by R. A. Pfeiffer, reference 7.

Ewald Hering, Spatial Sense and Movements of the Eye, translated by C. A. Radde (The American Academy of Optometry, Baltimore, Maryland, 1942), p. 78.

L . Heine, Arch. Ophthalmol. 51, 563 (1900).

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