Abstract

A spherical mirror, autocollimating plane grating monochromator is described which is compact, stable, and exhibits spectral resolution which is better than 50 percent of the theoretical value. The spectrometer is 30 inches long and uses a 3-in. wide grating with 30,000 lines/inch. The optical system, although not in use in any modern spectrometer, was described by Ebert in 1889. The aberration corrective arrangement of the spherical mirror leaves only astigmatism as a serious aberration. The use of curved slits to remove this effect of astigmatism is described.

The mechanical-optical system is described in detail, and use of the instrument with a photomultiplier tube to record visible and ultraviolet emission spectra is described. Spectra are presented which demonstrate a second-order spectral resolution of 0.05A in the visible and ultraviolet region.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. John Strong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 320 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Kayser, Handbuch der Spectroscope1900), Vol.  1.
  3. H. Ebert, Wied. Ann. 38, 489 (1889).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, Z. Physik 61, 792 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Czerny and V. Plettig, Z. Physik 61, 590 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  6. Private communication.
  7. Badger, Zumwalt, and Giguère, Rev. Sci. Instr. 19, 861 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. P. Broida and J. W. Moyer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 37 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. P. Broida and K. E. Shuler, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 168 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  10. William G. Fastie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 647 (1952).
    [Crossref]

1952 (3)

1949 (1)

1948 (1)

Badger, Zumwalt, and Giguère, Rev. Sci. Instr. 19, 861 (1948).
[Crossref]

1930 (2)

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, Z. Physik 61, 792 (1930).
[Crossref]

M. Czerny and V. Plettig, Z. Physik 61, 590 (1930).
[Crossref]

1900 (1)

H. Kayser, Handbuch der Spectroscope1900), Vol.  1.

1889 (1)

H. Ebert, Wied. Ann. 38, 489 (1889).
[Crossref]

Badger,

Badger, Zumwalt, and Giguère, Rev. Sci. Instr. 19, 861 (1948).
[Crossref]

Broida, H. P.

H. P. Broida and K. E. Shuler, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 168 (1952).
[Crossref]

H. P. Broida and J. W. Moyer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 37 (1952).
[Crossref]

Czerny, M.

M. Czerny and V. Plettig, Z. Physik 61, 590 (1930).
[Crossref]

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, Z. Physik 61, 792 (1930).
[Crossref]

Ebert, H.

H. Ebert, Wied. Ann. 38, 489 (1889).
[Crossref]

Fastie, William G.

Giguère,

Badger, Zumwalt, and Giguère, Rev. Sci. Instr. 19, 861 (1948).
[Crossref]

Kayser, H.

H. Kayser, Handbuch der Spectroscope1900), Vol.  1.

Moyer, J. W.

Plettig, V.

M. Czerny and V. Plettig, Z. Physik 61, 590 (1930).
[Crossref]

Shuler, K. E.

H. P. Broida and K. E. Shuler, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 168 (1952).
[Crossref]

Strong, John

Turner, A. F.

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, Z. Physik 61, 792 (1930).
[Crossref]

Zumwalt,

Badger, Zumwalt, and Giguère, Rev. Sci. Instr. 19, 861 (1948).
[Crossref]

Handbuch der Spectroscope (1)

H. Kayser, Handbuch der Spectroscope1900), Vol.  1.

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. P. Broida and K. E. Shuler, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 168 (1952).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

Badger, Zumwalt, and Giguère, Rev. Sci. Instr. 19, 861 (1948).
[Crossref]

Wied. Ann. (1)

H. Ebert, Wied. Ann. 38, 489 (1889).
[Crossref]

Z. Physik (2)

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, Z. Physik 61, 792 (1930).
[Crossref]

M. Czerny and V. Plettig, Z. Physik 61, 590 (1930).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Private communication.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of optical components. M1 is a spherical concave mirror. G is a plane grating. B1 and B2 are light baffles. S1 and S2 are entrance and exit slits in the focal plane of the concave mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ray diagram of optical system with a plane mirror M2 in place of the grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

End-on view of optical system showing relationship between line images with straight and curved slits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reproduction of Ebert’s sketch of his spectrometer.3

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correcting system with off-axis spheres as described by Czerny and Turner (see reference 4).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Arrangement of spherical mirrors in a prism monochromator to correct for aberrations as described by Czerny and Plettig (see reference 5).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Arrangement of spherical mirrors in a prism spectrometer which does not correct for aberrations. Compare with Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sketch of tubular mounting T for concave spherical mirror (M1) grating G and slits (on end plate P).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Detail of crankshaft type of grating mounting.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Detail of bearings and bearing mountings for grating shaft.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sketch of mechanism for continuously driving the grating assembly.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Block diagram of detecting-recording system.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Photograph of spectrometer and electronic components.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

First-order spectrum of mercury green line.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Second-order spectrum of mercury green line.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Second-order spectrum of 3131 A mercury doublet.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Second-order spectrum at 3070 A region of OH emission from a bunsen flame. (Courtesy National Bureau of Standards.)

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Isometric view of the optical system in which the entrance slit is replaced by a resolving power chart and the exit slit is removed to allow observation of the image with a microscope.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Resume of resolving power tests.