Abstract

Surface appearance, apart from texture, is defined by the goniophotometric curve giving the angular distribution of the reflected light. A summary of current goniophotometric techniques shows that essential parts of these fundamental data have been neglected. This paper applies an established method of statistics to the problem of goniophotometric-curve analysis and interpretation whereby such data are reduced to dispersion, skewness, and kurtosis indexes. The kurtosis index is shown to correlate better with subjective estimates of the distinctness of the reflected images than the conventional measure, 60° specular gloss. The kurtosis index is applied to one problem in the selection of optimum glossmeter geometry.

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  1. F. Thaler, Ann. Physik 11, 996 (1903).
  2. V. G. W. Harrison, Definition and Measuremnent of Gloss (Patra, London, 1945), p. 106.
  3. W. W. Barkas, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 51, 274 (1939).
  4. G. I. Pokrowski, "Zur Theorie der diffusen Lichtreflexion," Pt. I, Z. physik 30 (1924); Pt. II, 35 (1925); Pt. III, 35 (1925); Pt. IV, 36 (1926).
  5. A. Fresnel, Ann. chim. et phys. 17, 194, 312 (1821).
  6. T. K. Chinmayanandam, Phys. Rev. 13, (2), 96 (1919).
  7. H. L. Reitz, Mathematical Statistics (The Open Court Publishing Company, La Salle, Illinois, 1927).
  8. F. E. Croxton and D. J. Cowden, Applied General Statistics, (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1946).
  9. M. P. Pelton, Trans. Opt. Soc. Ltd. 31, 184 (1930).
  10. R. S. Hunter, "Gloss investigations using reflected images of a target pattern," J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards, RP879, 16, 357 (1936).
  11. "ASTM method of test for 60° specular gloss of paint finishes" Am. Soc. Testing Materials designation D523, Book of Am. Soc. Testing Materials Standards, Part 4 (1949).
  12. I. Nimeroff, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards RP2336, 48,(1952).

1936 (1)

R. S. Hunter, "Gloss investigations using reflected images of a target pattern," J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards, RP879, 16, 357 (1936).

Barkas, W. W.

W. W. Barkas, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 51, 274 (1939).

Chinmayanandam, T. K.

T. K. Chinmayanandam, Phys. Rev. 13, (2), 96 (1919).

Cowden, D. J.

F. E. Croxton and D. J. Cowden, Applied General Statistics, (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1946).

Croxton, F. E.

F. E. Croxton and D. J. Cowden, Applied General Statistics, (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1946).

Fresnel, A.

A. Fresnel, Ann. chim. et phys. 17, 194, 312 (1821).

Harrison, V. G. W.

V. G. W. Harrison, Definition and Measuremnent of Gloss (Patra, London, 1945), p. 106.

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, "Gloss investigations using reflected images of a target pattern," J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards, RP879, 16, 357 (1936).

Nimeroff, I.

I. Nimeroff, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards RP2336, 48,(1952).

Pelton, M. P.

M. P. Pelton, Trans. Opt. Soc. Ltd. 31, 184 (1930).

Pokrowski, G. I.

G. I. Pokrowski, "Zur Theorie der diffusen Lichtreflexion," Pt. I, Z. physik 30 (1924); Pt. II, 35 (1925); Pt. III, 35 (1925); Pt. IV, 36 (1926).

Reitz, H. L.

H. L. Reitz, Mathematical Statistics (The Open Court Publishing Company, La Salle, Illinois, 1927).

Thaler, F.

F. Thaler, Ann. Physik 11, 996 (1903).

J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (1)

R. S. Hunter, "Gloss investigations using reflected images of a target pattern," J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards, RP879, 16, 357 (1936).

Other (11)

"ASTM method of test for 60° specular gloss of paint finishes" Am. Soc. Testing Materials designation D523, Book of Am. Soc. Testing Materials Standards, Part 4 (1949).

I. Nimeroff, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards RP2336, 48,(1952).

F. Thaler, Ann. Physik 11, 996 (1903).

V. G. W. Harrison, Definition and Measuremnent of Gloss (Patra, London, 1945), p. 106.

W. W. Barkas, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 51, 274 (1939).

G. I. Pokrowski, "Zur Theorie der diffusen Lichtreflexion," Pt. I, Z. physik 30 (1924); Pt. II, 35 (1925); Pt. III, 35 (1925); Pt. IV, 36 (1926).

A. Fresnel, Ann. chim. et phys. 17, 194, 312 (1821).

T. K. Chinmayanandam, Phys. Rev. 13, (2), 96 (1919).

H. L. Reitz, Mathematical Statistics (The Open Court Publishing Company, La Salle, Illinois, 1927).

F. E. Croxton and D. J. Cowden, Applied General Statistics, (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1946).

M. P. Pelton, Trans. Opt. Soc. Ltd. 31, 184 (1930).

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