Abstract

The photopic luminosity function for fifteen Egyptian observers with normal color vision has been measured every 100A between 0.41μ and 0.46μ by the direct comparison method and between 0.46μ and 0.70μ by the flicker technique on Wright’s colorimeter. Two humps at about 0.45μ and 0.48μ have been noticed but are more pronounced than those found by previous investigators. An analysis of the present data and the more important previous investigations has been made. It was found that the discrepancies among the different results could be partly accounted for by differences in the observational conditions and differences in the densities of the yellow macular pigmentation among the observers. The results also confirm Jacobsen’s finding that the C.I.E. luminosity function is low at the blue end of the spectrum.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. E. Jacobsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 442 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949) and J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 43, 227 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards 19, 131, S475 (1923).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).
  8. I. G. H. Ishak, “A Study of Colour Vision Characteristics of Egyptian Trichromats,” Ph.D. thesis (London University, 1950).
  9. P. Jainski, Diss. Tech. Hochschule (Berlin, 1938).
  10. J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 332 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 205 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady, Astrophys. J. 48, 65 (1918).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. W. Coblentz and W. B. Emerson, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 303, 219 (1917).
  14. H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 6, 853 (1912).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. G. Nutting, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 58 (1920).
  16. H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 51 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. L. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).
  19. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).
  20. H. J. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 793 (November, 1948).
  21. L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. (1950) (to be published).
  22. G. Wald, Documenta Ophthalmol. 3, 94 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B113, 496 (1933).
    [CrossRef]

1949 (4)

1948 (2)

H. J. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 793 (November, 1948).

A. E. Jacobsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 442 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1945 (1)

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1943 (1)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).
[CrossRef]

1940 (1)

1937 (1)

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 332 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 205 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B113, 496 (1933).
[CrossRef]

1923 (1)

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards 19, 131, S475 (1923).
[CrossRef]

1920 (1)

P. G. Nutting, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 58 (1920).

1918 (1)

Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady, Astrophys. J. 48, 65 (1918).
[CrossRef]

1917 (1)

W. W. Coblentz and W. B. Emerson, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 303, 219 (1917).

1912 (1)

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 6, 853 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Cady,

Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady, Astrophys. J. 48, 65 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Coblentz, W. W.

W. W. Coblentz and W. B. Emerson, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 303, 219 (1917).

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B113, 496 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Dartnall, H. J.

H. J. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 793 (November, 1948).

Emerson, W. B.

W. W. Coblentz and W. B. Emerson, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 303, 219 (1917).

Forsythe,

Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady, Astrophys. J. 48, 65 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards 19, 131, S475 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

Hyde,

Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady, Astrophys. J. 48, 65 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Ishak, I. G. H.

I. G. H. Ishak, “A Study of Colour Vision Characteristics of Egyptian Trichromats,” Ph.D. thesis (London University, 1950).

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 6, 853 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, A. E.

Jainski, P.

P. Jainski, Diss. Tech. Hochschule (Berlin, 1938).

Judd, D. B.

Nelson, J. H.

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 332 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 58 (1920).

Pitt, F. H. G.

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 205 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Polyak, S. L.

S. L. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B113, 496 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. (1950) (to be published).

Tyndall, E. P. T.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards 19, 131, S475 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Documenta Ophthalmol. 3, 94 (1949).
[CrossRef]

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, K. S.

Wright, W. D.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 205 (1935).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

Astrophys. J. (1)

Hyde, Forsythe, and Cady, Astrophys. J. 48, 65 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 793 (1)

H. J. Dartnall, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 793 (November, 1948).

Documenta Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Wald, Documenta Ophthalmol. 3, 94 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Phil. Mag. (1)

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 6, 853 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (3)

L. C. Thomson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 332 (1937).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 205 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (2)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B113, 496 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Papers Bur. Standards (1)

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards 19, 131, S475 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 303 (1)

W. W. Coblentz and W. B. Emerson, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards No. 303, 219 (1917).

Science (1)

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

S. L. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

I. G. H. Ishak, “A Study of Colour Vision Characteristics of Egyptian Trichromats,” Ph.D. thesis (London University, 1950).

P. Jainski, Diss. Tech. Hochschule (Berlin, 1938).

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. (1950) (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The mean Egyptian luminosity curve (dots and dashes) shown against Gibson and Tyndall’s (dotted) and the C.I.E. (continuous) curves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Visual estimation of the optical density of the yellow pigmentation as derived from Wald’s 8° extrafovea luminosity curve and the fovea luminosity curves of (1) mean Egyptian observer (continuous), (2) Gibson and Tyndall (dots and dashes), (3) Coblentz and Emerson (dashes), (4) Wald (dotted).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I The logarithms of the spectral luminosity values for the Egyptian observers bringing the maximum to 3.0.

Tables Icon

Table II Conditions of observations for some investigators.