Abstract

Measurements in terms of the total average number of quanta that must be intercepted from the background by a flash of various durations, shapes, and sizes in order to perceive a “negative” flash are presented for rod vision 7° nasal from the fovea.

It proved that the results are fairly well described by quantatheoretical observations on the dependence of the absolute threshold on the visual angle of the test spot and the flashtime and such observations on the behavior of the contrast threshold.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. A. van der Velden, Documenta Ophthalmologica 111, 321 (1946).
  2. Hl. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalmologica 4, 23 (1950). J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 825 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Lamar, Hecht, Schlaer, and Hendley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 741 (1948), Hecht, Ross, and Müller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 500 (1947).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 231 (1948).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 825 (1950).
    [Crossref]

1950 (2)

M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalmologica 4, 23 (1950). J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 825 (1950).
[Crossref]

M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 825 (1950).
[Crossref]

1948 (2)

1946 (2)

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. van der Velden, Documenta Ophthalmologica 111, 321 (1946).

1943 (1)

Hl. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the experimental arrangement. L calibrated tungsten ribbon filament lamp, S shield, A lens by which L is focused in plane of the rotating disk D driven by the synchronous motor m, M2 mirror, O opal glass; W neutral wedge, B screen white in front and black on backside, f red fixation point, M1 mirror, F green filter, P artificial pupil 2 mm in size, C diaphragm in B of adjustable size and shape.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The total average number of quanta N ¯ 60 percent intercepted by circular negative flashes as a function of the root of the area in square minutes of arc ( O ) 1 2 for various flashtimes for a chance of observation of 60 percent. (b) The total average number of quanta N ¯ 60 percent intercepted by circular negative flashes as a function of the flashtime for various visual angles for a chance of observation of 60 percent.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The total average number of quanta N ¯ 60 percent for circular positive flashes as a function of the root of the area in square minutes of arc ( O ) 1 2 for various flashtimes for a chance of perception of 60 percent. (b) The total average number of quanta N ¯ 60 percent intercepted by circular negative flashes without surrounding field as a function of the root of the area in square minutes of arc ( O ) 1 2 for various flashtimes for a chance of observation of 60 percent.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The total average number of quanta N ¯ 60 percent intercepted by circular (○) and square (●) negative flashes as a function of the root of the area in square minutes of arc ( O ) 1 2 for a chance of observation of 60 percent.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The total average number of quanta N ¯ 60 percent intercepted by rectangular negative flashes length 160′, 80′, 40′ as a function of the width for a chance of observation of 60 percent.